Keragaan Dan Keragaman Karakter Agronomi Pada Populasi Intra Dan Inter Famili Dura Elit Koleksi Taman Buah Mekarsari [Variability of Some Agronomic Traits Within and Between Family of Mekarsari Elite Dura Population]

Azis Natawijaya, Sintho WA, Ismail maskromo, M. Syukur, Alex Hartana, Sudarsono Sudarsono

Abstract


Genetic variability is a basis for plant genetic improvement. Evaluation of genetic variability in oil palm populations helps breeders in determining traits for selection, determining appropriate selection methods, and identifying promising families. The study was aimed to evaluate the genetic variability within and between family in elite dura population. The research was conducted from January 2014 until December 2016 at Mekarsari Research Station. A total of 287 individuals from 18 different genetic backgrounds were used as research materials. The results showed that the phenotypic variability within and between family are wide. No single family or genotype has any superior characters yet. So a breeding approach is needed to converge all good traits into one genotype or population.

ABSTRAK

Variabiltas genetik merupakan dasar untuk perbaikan genetik tanaman. Evaluasi variabilitas genetik pada populasi kelapa sawit membantu pemulia dalam menentukan karakter dan kriteria seleksi, menentukan metode seleksi yang tepat, dan mengidentifikasi famili-famili potensial yang memiliki karakter harapan. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mengevaluasi keragaman beberapa karakter agronomi pada populasi kelapa sawit dura elit. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Januari 2014 sampai dengan Desember 2016 di Kebun Percobaan PT. Sasaran Ehsan Mekarsari. Total 287 individu yang berasal dari 18 latar belakang genetik yang berbeda digunakan sebagai bahan tanaman untuk penelitian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa karakter agronomi pada populasi dura koleksi Mekarsari menunjukkan keragaman yang tinggi baik intra maupun inter famili. Karakter rasio mesocarp dan jumlah biji per tandan memiliki variasi fenotipe yang terluas dan famili atau genotipe yang memiliki semua karakter unggul belum ada. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan pendekatan pemuliaan untuk menghimpun sifat-sifat baik ke dalam satu populasi atau memfiksasi gen-gen yang tersebar di antara famili atau genotipe ke dalam satu populasi


Keywords


Variabilitas genetik; ragam intra dan inter famili; pemuliaan konvergen

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bp.v18n1.2017.23-32

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