Komunitas Hymenoptera Parasitoid pada Areal Hutan Sagu (Metroxylon spp.) di Maluku [Community of Hymenopterous Parasitoid on Sago Forest Area (Metroxylon spp.) in Maluku]

Rein Estefanus Senewe, Hermanu Triwidodo, Pudjianto Pudjianto, Aunu Rauf

Abstract


Sago (Metroxylon sagu Rottb) in Maluku grow naturally to form sago forest ecosystem. Hymenoptera in the sago forest ecosystem has not been studied. This study aims to examine the diversity of Hymenopterous parasitoids in sago forests in Maluku. The research was conducted in Ariate, Eti, Waisamu, Rutong, Tawiri, and Tulehu in September 2015 - October 2016. Hymenopterous parasitoids were collected through swing nets, light traps, yellow pan traps, and pitfall traps. Results the abundance of hymenopterous parasitoids in six sago areas in Maluku was found to be 14 families and 32 species. The morphoses of morphospecies are 68 morphospecies of Sago Ariate forest 32 morphospecies, Eti 37 morphospecies, Waisamu 9 morphospecies, Rutong 11 morphospecies, Tawiri 19 morphospecies, and Tulehu 37 morphospecies. The high diversity index (2.18 - 3.55) per location, Morphospesies wealth of Tulehu is  higher than other location, while the individual abundance of Ariate is higher than other villages. The average relative abundance of Scelionidae, Scoliidae and Ichneumonidae families was higher by 26.46%, 15.95%, and 10.89%, respectively. There are three families with high morphospecies and individual abundance in each sago area ie Scoliidae in sago forest area of Ariate and Waesamu, Scelionidae on Rutang, Eti, and Tawiri sago wood area, while Eulophidae on sago Tulehu area. There are 12 unique species or species with only certain locations and none in other locations, each Ariate (2 species), Eti (2 species), and Tulehu (8 species).

ABSTRAK


Sagu (Metroxylon spp.) merupakan tanaman sosial, budaya dan ekonomi di Maluku dengan potensi hutan sagu cukup tersedia. Teridentifikasi gejala kerusakan empulur pati dan tajuk tanaman sagu akibat serangga. Kebijakan pengendalian hayati melalui pelepasan parasitoid dalam sistem aplikasi Pengendalian Hama Terpadu merupakan salah satu alternatif. Hymenoptera parasitoid pada ekosistem hutan sagu penting untuk dipelajari morfospesiesnya sebagai data dan informasi ilmiah dalam menunjang program pengembangan agens hayati dalam pengelolaan serangga herbivor tanaman sagu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji keanekaragaman Hymenoptera parasitoid pada hutan sagu di Maluku. Dalam penelitian ini dipilih tiga lokasi di Pulau Ambon dan tiga lokasi di Pulau Seram, kemudian masing-masing lokasi dipilih tiga rumpun sagu contoh secara acak. Setiap rumpun sagu dalam lingkaran radius 5m dari pohon sagu utama seluas 100m2 dilakukan pengambilan serangga melalui jaring serangga, perangkap lubang, dan perangkap nampan kuning, sedangkan perangkap lampu dilakukan pada satu titik disetiap lokasi. Pengambilan serangga dilakukan pada musim kemarau dan hujan dibulan September 2015 – Oktober 2016. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kelimpahan Hymenoptera parasitoid pada enam lokasi hutan sagu diperoleh sebanyak 14 famili dan 30 morfospesies. Kekayaan morfospesies disetiap lokasi berkisar antara 5-21 morfospesies, dengan proporsi koleksi serangga melalui penggunaan jaring serangga lebih tinggi. Indeks keanekaragaman tinggi (2.18 – 3.55) per lokasi, kelimpahan individu di Ariate dan kekayaan morfospesies di Tulehu masing-masing lebih tinggi dari lokasi lainnya. Rata-rata kelimpahan relatif famili Scelionidae, Scoliidae, dan Ichneumonidae masing-masing 26.46%, 15.95%, dan 10.89%. Terdapat 12 spesies unik masing-masing Ariate (dua spesies), Eti (dua spesies), dan Tulehu (delapan spesies). Scelionidae, Scoliidae, Ichneumonidae dan Eulophidae merupakan kelompok parasitoid telur-larva potensial yang terindikasi berasosiasi dengan serangga herbivor pada tanaman sagu dari ordo Coleoptera dan Orthoptera.

 

 


Keywords


kemerataan spesies; kekayaan spesies; hymenoptera; parasitoid; sagu

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bp.v18n1.2017.9-21

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