Rekayasa Alat Pengolahan Etanol dari Aren Sistem Evaporator-Destilator Ganda

A. LAY

Abstract


Penelitian bertujuan untuk memodifikasi alat dan sistem pengolahan etanol dari hasil fermentasi dan destilasi yang berkadar etanol 25-39% menjadi etanol 95% atau lebih melalui proses evaporasi, destilasi dan dehidrasi. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium dan Bengkel Rekayasa Alat Balai Penelitian Palma, tahun 2011. Kegiatan penelitian terdiri dari: (a) Modifikasi alat pengolahan etanol, destilator-dehidrator dan uji kinerja, (b) Karakterisasi dan neraca massa bahan baku dan produk etanol, dan (c) Analisis ekonomi pengolahan etanol. Pengamatan meliputi suhu pemanasan optimal masing-masing unit operasi, waktu proses, konsumsi bahan bakar, debit air destilasi, proporsi produk etanol, kadar etanol, kadar gula dan pH etanol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa alat pengolahan etanol ini efektif, ditandai waktu proses yang singkat, dan menghasil etanol dengan kadar yang tinggi. Pengolahan etanol pada proses dehidrasi yang menggunakan saringan molekuler menghasilkan etanol kadar 98-99%, sedangkan tanpa menggunakan saringan molekuler etanol menghasilkan etanol dengan kadar 95-96%. Alat pengolahan etanol ini dapat diaplikasikan pada kelompok tani dan usaha kecil menengah. Kata kunci: Aren, etanol, alat pengolahan etanol.

ABSTRACT

Engineering Design of Ethanol Procedssing from Fermented Sap of Sugar Palm with Evaporator-destilator Double System

The research aim to modify the unit and processing technology of ethanol from fermented sap of sugar palm, with ethanol content of 25-39 % to produce ≥ 95% through evaporation, distillation and dehydration processes. Research conducted at the Laboratory and Workshop Equipment Engineering, Indonesian Palmae Research Institute, in 2011. Research activities consist of: (a) Modification of ethanol processing tools, distillator-dehydrator system and performance test, (b) Characterization and mass balance of raw materials and ethanol product, and (c) Economic analysis of ethanol processing. Observations included the optimal heating temperature of each unit operation, processing time, fuel consumption, discharge of distilled water, proportion of ethanol products, ethanol content, sugar content and ethanol pH. The results showed that ethanol processing tools is effective which marked by short processing time, and produced ethanol high content. The ethanol processing using molecular sieve proced ethanol 98-99 %, whereas the processing without molecular sieve produced ethanol 95-96 %. The ethanol processing tools can be applied to farmer groups, small-medium busines scale.

Keywords


Sugar palm;ethanol;ethanol processing tools



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bp.v13n2.2012.92-102

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P-ISSN: 1979 - 679X
E-ISSN: 2528 - 7141

Arkreditasi No 21/E/KPT/2018, tanggal 9 Juli 2018

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