Biologi dan Tabel Hidup Hama Brontispa longissima var. longissima Gestro (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) pada Tanaman Kelapa (Cocos nucifera)

nFn RAHMA, JELFINA C ALOUW

Abstract


Hama B. longissima var. longissima Gestro telah dikategorikan sebagai spesies invasif dan hama utama tanaman kelapa karena potensinya dalam menurunkan produksi tanaman kelapa dan menyebabkan kematian tanaman muda, serta kecepatan penyebarannya ke beberapa negara di kawasan Pacifik, Asia Tenggara, dan Asia Timur. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkonfirmasi dan memutakhirkan data karakteristik biologi serta memprediksi populasi hama B. longissima var. longissima Gestro. Kegiatan penelitian dimulai pada bulan November 2010 sampai bulan Maret 2012 di Laboratorium Entomologi pada Balai Penelitian Tanaman Palma, Manado. Populasi B. longissima dikumpulkan dari tanaman kelapa yang terserang di lapangan kemudian semua tahap perkembangannya dipelihara di laboratorium. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap 100 individu telur hasil pemeliharaan di laboratorium. Parameter pengamatan meliputi pertumbuhan, perkembangan dan kemampuan hidup setiap tahap perkembangan serta tabel hidup untuk memprediksi kecepatan perkembangannya di lapangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa siklus hidup hama B. longissima var. longissima mulai dari telur sampai imago meletakkan telur pertama kali berlangsung sekitar 74,32 hari. B. longissima var. longissima diperkirakan bisa memiliki empat generasi per tahun di lapangan jika lingkungan dalam keadaan optimal. Lama hidup larva dan imago sebagai tahap perkembangan hama yang merusak tanaman bisa mencapai 231 hari, atau 1,7 kali lebih lama dari yang dilaporkan sebelumnya. Laju reproduksi bersih (Ro) berkisar 75,16 sedangkan rataan masa generasi (T) berkisar 91,62 hari dan laju pertambahan intrinsik (r) sebesar 0,05. Populasi cenderung meningkat pada generasi berikutnya jika peran faktor-faktor pengendali populasi diabaikan. Kata kunci: Brontispa longissima var. longissima, kelapa, biologi, tabel hidup.

ABSTRACT

Biology and Life Table of Brontispa longissima var. longissima Gestro (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera)

Brontispa longissima var. longissima has emerged as an invasive species and major pest of coconut and other palms due to a combination of its high capacity to inflict economic damage and distribution to the Pacific, Southeast and East Asia. The present study was done to confirm its current biology, and study the life table for estimating its developmental rate in the field. The study was conducted at Entomology laboratory of Indonesia Palmae research institute, Manado from November 2010 to March 2012. B. longissima population were collected from coconut palms attacked by the insects in the field. All of the collected developmental stages were reared on young coconut leaflet under laboratory condition. Observation was done on 100 laboratory-reared eggs. Growth, development, longevity of each developmental stages, and life table for predicting developmental rate of the insect in the field were observed. The life cycle of B. longissima var. longissima was about 74,32 days from eggs to pre-oviposition period. The length of time needed by larval and adult as damaging developmental stages of the insect complete their development in coconut leaves was231 days, which is 1,7 times higher than the previous reports. The net reproduction rate (Ro) was 75,16, whereas the mean length of a generation (T) was 91,62 days, and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) was 0,05 per day. Lack of the control measure to the population of Brontispa would lead to the increase of the population over time.

Keywords


Brontispa longissima var. longissima;coconut;biology;life table

Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bp.v15n1.2014.33-39

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Buletin Palma

 


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

            

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

P-ISSN: 1979 - 679X
E-ISSN: 2528 - 7141

Arkreditasi No 21/E/KPT/2018, tanggal 9 Juli 2018

Kantor Editorial :

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Palma

Jln. Raya Mapanget PO Box 1004

Telp. 0431-812430, Fax. 0431-812017

Email: balitka05@yahoo.com, buletinpalma@gmail.com

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

View My Stats