Keunggulan Varietas Kelapa Buol ST-1 dan Potensi Pengembangannya

ELSJE T. TENDA, MEITY A. TULALO, JEANETTE KUMAUNANG, ISMAIL MASKROMO ISMAIL MASKROMO

Abstract


Rendahnya produksi merupakan masalah dalam perkelapaan di Indonesia, sehingga perlu dicari kelapa-kelapa unggul lokal yang sudah beradaptasi baik pada suatu daerah untuk digunakan sebagai sumber benih dalam pengembangan kelapa. Kabupaten Buol, adalah salah satu daerah penghasil utama kelapa di Sulawesi Tengah. Penelitian dilakukan sejak tahun 2011 sampai 2013 di desa Mokupo, kecamatan Karamat, Kabupaten Buol, Sulawesi Tengah dengan metode observasi. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap karakter morfologi meliputi karakter vegetatif, generatif, komponen buah, dan kimia daging buah. Selain itu dilakukan penilaian populasi/blok pertanaman, seleksi dan evaluasi pohon induk sebagai sumber benih. Hasil observasi menunjukkan Kelapa Buol memiliki potensi produksi tinggi > 3 ton kopra/ha/tahun, kadar minyak kopra 61%, dan memiliki ciri spesifik, yaitu cepat berbuah ± 40 bulan (sama dengan kelapa Genjah), pertambahan batang lambat (tinggi 11 bekas daun < 1 m), dan batangnya memiliki bole. Karakter-karakter tersebut merupakan karakter antara kelapa tipe Genjah dan tipe Dalam. Hasil penilaian populasi/blok pertanaman diperoleh bahwa populasi kelapa Buol memenuhi syarat sebagai Blok Penghasil Tinggi. Seleksi pohon induk kelapa terhadap 3000 tanaman di Desa Mokupo diperoleh sebanyak 300 pohon induk terpilih. Potensi benih dari sejumlah pohon induk terpilih tersebut sebanyak 28.800 butir benih per tahun yang dapat digunakan untuk pengembangan kelapa di lahan seluas 131 ha per tahun. Berdasarkan hasil evaluasi yang telah dilakukan, maka populasi kelapa Buol telah dilepas sebagai varietas kelapa unggul lokal, dengan nama kelapa Buol ST-1. Pohon-pohon induk terpilih dari populasi kelapa Buol ST-1 akan menjadi materi pemuliaan untuk perakitan varietas unggul dan sebagai sumber benih untuk pengembangan kelapa di daerah-daerah yang memiliki iklim seperti di Kabupaten Buol.

 

ABSTRACT

Accessions Superiority of Buol ST-1 variety and It’s Potential Development

Low of production is the problem coconut plantation in Indonesia, therefore it is necessary to find a local superior coconut that has adapted to an area that can be used as a source of seeds in coconut development. Buol is one of the main coconut producing region in Central Sulawesi. The study was conducted from 2011 to 2013 in the Mokupo Village, Karamat District, Buol Region, by using observation method. Data were collected for morphological characters include vegetative characters, generative characters, fruit components, and chemical content of endosperm. Additional evaluations were done on assessment of population/block planting, selection and evaluation of the mother plant as a source of seed. Observations indicate that Buol ST-1 coconut has a high production potential as much as 3.3 tons of copra/ha/year, copra oil content of 61 %, and has a specific characteristic that is early bearing fruits ± 40 months (same with dwarf coconut), stem slow accretion (height of 11 leaf scars < 1 m ), and the stem has a bole. These characters are between Tall type and Dwarf type. The assessment results of Buol coconut populations obtained that qualify as High Yeilding Block. About 300 trees were selected as mother palms. Potential seed could be produced from selected mother palm as much as 28,800 seed per year that can be used for development in 131 ha land per year. Based on valuations have been done, the coconut Buol ST-1 has been released as the local superior coconut varieties, with names Buol ST-1. Selected mother palms of coconut population of Buol ST-1 will be using as a matterial for the breeding to assemby superior varieties and as a source of seed for coconut development in the province of Central Sulawesi and the areas that have the climate like in Buol district.

 


Keywords


Kelapa unggul;metode seleksi; pohon induk terpilih; komponen buah; kandungan nutrisi;Superior coconut; selection method; selected mother palm; fruit component; nutrition content

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bp.v15n2.2014.93-101

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