Ketersediaan Nitrogen dan Populasi Bakteri Tanah di bawah Pengaruh Pemupukan pada System of Rice Intensification (Nitrogen Availability and Soil Bacteria Population under Fertilization Treatments in the System of Rice Intensification)

Nurul Istiqomah, Tanya Naomi Indarto, Virgus Amien Nugroho, Cahyo Prayogo

Abstract


Abstrak. Sistem tanam SRI merupakan teknik untuk meningkatkan produktivitas padi dengan pengairan berselang . Kondisi aerobik menstimulasi aktivitas mikroorganisme di dalam tanah dan meningkatkan ketersediaan nutrisi terutama Nitrogen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak pupuk N, P dan K dan pupuk hayati pada sistem SRI terhadap status mineral N dan populasi bakteri tanah yang terlibat dalam dinamika Nitrogen. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Oktober 2015 sampai dengan Maret 2016 di Kepanjen-Malang, Jawa Timur dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan 4 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Pengambilan sampel tanah dilakukan pada 0 dan 100 Hari Setelah Tanam (HST) pada kedalaman 0-20 cm dan 20-40 cm. Parameter tanah yang terukur meliputi pH, organik-C, mineral N (NH4+ dan NO3-). Bakteri tanah diidentifikasi dengan metode lempeng hitung (spread plate) untuk memperkirakan populasi mereka. Analisis varian (ANOVA) digunakan dan diikuti

uji Duncan pada tingkat 5% seiring dengan analisis korelasi dan regresi. Analisis Multivariat Canonical (CVA) digunakan untuk mengelompokkan perlakuan berdasarkan parameter yang terpilih. Sistem budidaya SRI dengan penggunaan pupuk hayati dapat meningkatkan kandungan NO3- dari 5,08 menjadi 62,5 mg kg-1 (ppm) dan populasi bakteri dari 4, 3 x 108 menjadi 10,55 x 109 cfu g-1, pada kedalaman tanah 0-20 cm. Pola yang sama juga terlihat pada kandungan NH4+ yang meningkat dari 3,78 menjadi 17,87 mg kg-1. Secara umum, konsentrasi N mineral pada kedalaman 0-20 cm lebih rendah daripada kedalaman 20-40 cm. Analisis CVA menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan tanpa aplikasi NPK dan tanpa biofertilizer terkelompokkan secara nyata, berbeda dengan perlakuan lainnya berdasarkan nilai pH tanah, organik-C, dan mineral N (NH4+ and NO3-). Perlakuan terbaik adalah kombinasi NPK (15-15-15) sebesar 300 kg ha-1, pemakaian Urea 100 kg ha-1 dan penggunaan pupuk hayati sebanyak 10 l ha-1 yang menghasilkan gabah sebanyak 8,42 t ha-1. 

Abstract. The obstacles that caused the declining of rice production is due to reduction on soil fertility status. Various efforts were made to increase the production such as intensification and expansion in rice farming system. SRI cropping systems is alternative technique for improving soil productivity following maintaining water uses under aerobic condition which exagerated the raising of microorganisms activities in soil and improving the availability of nutrients particularly nitrogen status. This study was aimed to examine the impact of SRI system on mineral N status along with population of soil bacteria which involving in nitrogen dynamic. The research was conducted in October 2015-March 2016 in Kepanjeng-Malang using Randomized Block Design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. Soil sampling was conducted at 0 and 100 Day After Planting (DAP) collecting at a depth of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. Measured soil parameter  was including pH, organic-C, mineral N (NH4+ and NO3-). Soil bacteria is identified using plate count method (spread plate) for estimating their population. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used followed by Duncan test at 5% level along with correlation and regression analisis. Multivariate Analysis (CVA) was employed for clustering the treatment based on selected parameters. The results showed that the SRI cultivation system can increase the mineral N at the level of 14.09 ppm compared to their initial value, amounting to 57.48 ppm of Nitrate and bacterial population at the level of 6.25 x 108cfu g-1. The best tratment was found under the combination of NPK (15-15-15) and biofertilizer yielded at 8.42 t ha-1. Multivariate analysis results indicates that P0 treatment significantly different with treatment P1, P2, and P3. However, the treatment of P1 were not significantly different P3.


Keywords


Varietas unggul baru; System of Rice Intensification (SRI); Mineral N; Pupuk hayati; Bakteri tanah; Biofertilizer; Mineral N; Biofertilizer; Soil bacteria

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2017/jti.v41i2.6478

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