Penentuan Waktu Tanam dan Kebutuhan Air Tanaman Padi, Jagung, Kedelai dan Bawang Merah di Provinsi Jawa Barat dan Nusa Tenggara Timur

Kharmila S. Hariyanti, Tania June, Yonni Koesmaryono, Rahmat Hidayat, Aris Pramudia

Abstract


Abstrak. Padi, jagung, kedelai dan bawang merah merupakan komoditas pangan unggulan di Indonesia. Jagung dan bawang merah umumnya ditanam sesudah padi atau kedelai di lahan sawah tadah hujan sehingga rentan terhadap kekeringan. Oleh sebab itu informasi iklim khususnya curah hujan dan suhu sangat penting dalam menentukan waktu tanam dan kebutuhan air yang tepat bagi tananam. Tujuan penelitian adalah menentukan waktu tanam dan kebutuhan air tanaman padi, jagung, kedelai, dan bawang merah berdasarkan analisis neraca air tanaman, serta menyusun peta waktu tanam di dua provinsi sentra produksi pangan Indonesia yaitu Jawa Barat dan Nusa Tenggara Timur agar risiko penurunan produksi karena kekeringan dapat diturunkan. Berdasarkan hasil analisis neraca air tanaman di 16 wilayah, tanaman yang ditanam pada tanah bertekstur debu memiliki waktu tanam rata-rata 13 dasarian, relatif lebih panjang dari tanah bertekstur lempung, liat dan pasir dengan waktu tanam berturut-turut: 10, 9 dan 5 dasarian. Wilayah dengan tekstur tanah pasir memiliki periode waktu tanam relatif lebih pendek karena tanah ini tidak dapat menahan air lebih lama di dalam tanah yang menyebabkan cekaman air lebih cepat terjadi. Tanaman padi lebih rentan terhadap kekeringan jika dibandingkan dengan tiga tanaman lainnya sehingga risiko kehilangan hasil juga relatif lebih tinggi. Kebutuhkan irigasi tanaman padi pada periode tanam Mei-Agustus dapat mencapai 4,9 mm hari-1 di provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur. Karakteristik curah hujan Jawa Barat memiliki bulan basah > 7 bulan sehingga memungkinkan waktu tanam lebih lama yaitu (pada tanah bertekstur) debu: 10-15 dasarian, lempung: 8-14 dasarian, liat: 8-13 dasarian dan pasir: 4-7 dasarian. Nusa Tenggara Timur dengan kondisi iklim lebih kering (bulan kering > 7 bulan) umumnya tidak direkomendasikan untuk menanam padi gogo dan disarankan untuk menanam jagung untuk menekan risiko kehilangan hasil.

Abstract. Rice, maize, soybean and shallot are among the most important food crops in Indonesia. Maize and shallots are generally planted after rice or soybeans on rainfed agriculture and hence they are prone to drought. Therefore, climate information, especially rainfall and temperature is very important in determining the planting time and water Requirements for these crops. The research objective was to determine the planting time and water requirements of rice, maize, soybeans, and shallots based on crop water balance analysis, as well as to arrange cropping map in West Java and East Nusa Tenggara provinces so that the risks of decreased yield due to drought could be minimized. Based on the results of water balance analysis at 16 areas, the average planting periode on soil with silt texture was 13 decades (130 days), relatively longer than those of loam, clay and sand texture soils, with consecutive planting periods of: 10, 9 and 5 decades. Areas with sand soil had a relatively shorter planting period because of low water holding capacity which causes water stress occurs more quickly. Rice plants are more susceptible to drought compared to the other three crops. Irrigation water requirements for rice in May to August could reach 4.9 mm day-1 in the East Nusa Tenggara province. Based on the rainfall characteristics of West Java, the recommendations for cropping periods are 10-15 decades for silt, 8-14 decades for loam, 8-13 decades for clay and 4-7 decades for sand textured soil. East Nusa Tenggara with a drier climatic conditions is not recommended for planting rice on upland and is recommended for maize with a lower risk of low yield.


Keywords


padi; jagung; kedelai; bawang; masa tanam; curah hujan; neraca air

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2017/jti.v43n1.2019.83-92

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