Memahami Komunikasi Tumbuhan-Tanah dalam Areal Rhizosfir untuk Optimasi Pengelolaan Lahan

Enny Widyati

Abstract


Abstrak. Seperti halnya dunia manusia, tumbuhan juga mengembangkan sistem komunikasi untuk mencapai kesejahteraan hidupnya. Bahasa yang digunakan adalah senyawa kimia yang diproduksi oleh eksudat akar. Tumbuhan merupakan inisiator karena mereka yang memiliki tujuan untuk apa komunikasi dibangun. Tumbuhan mengeluarkan eksudat akar untuk memanggil atau untuk mengusir mikroba yang diinginkan. Tumbuhan mengirim surat undangan pada beberapa mikroba dengan mensekresikan eksudat akar. Untuk membangun asosiasi mikoriza tumbuhan mengeluarkan gula, asam amino dan strigolakton. Hal tersebut akan dibalas oleh fungi dengan mengeluarkan senyawa flavonoid yang menunjukkan spesifikasi jenis inang-mikoriza. Hadirnya senyawa flavonoid merupakan undangan bagi rhizobium pada tanaman legum untuk membangun asosiasi. Tumbuhan akan menyeleksi rhizobium yang akan diajak berasosiasi dengan mensekresikan senyawa kanavanin yang bersifat toksik. Kesalahan dalam mengeluarkan eksudat akar merupakan surat undangan yang keliru bagi tumbuhan. Dosis senyawa stigolakton yang terlalu rendah tidak akan dapat membentuk asosiasi mikoriza tetapi yang berkembang adalah patogen. Walaupun tumbuhan menghasilkan senyawa fitoantisipin untuk mencegah serangan patogen dan fitoaleksin ketika patogen sudah menginfeksi. Komunikasi akar dengan akar tumbuhan lain dilakukan dengan menghasilkan senyawa alelopati untuk membatasi pertumbuhan akar di sekelilingnya yang dianggap sebagai pesaing. Tanaman invasif atau gulma umumnya selain menghasilkan alelopati juga memproduksi katekin yang dapat membunuh mikroba menguntungkan pada tumbuhan setempat. Akibatnya tumbuhan lokal akan rentan terhadap serangan penyakit dan berujung pada kematian. Selain alelopati, untuk merespon kehadiran tetangganya tumbuhan juga menghasilkan senyawa glukosinolat yang jumlahnya makin meningkat sejalan dengan tingginya biodiversitas vegetasi. Senyawa ini merupakan senyawa beracun bagi patogen, sehingga tumbuhan yang dibudidayakan dengan pola monokultur menjadi rentan terhadap penyakit. Oleh karena itu agar tanah tetap memiliki kandungan senyawa glukosinolat yang memadai serta tetap memelihara kondisi rhizosfir yang dinamis perlu dilakukan pergiliran tanaman varietas lokal setelah beberapa rotasi tanaman.

Abstract. Similar to human, plants also develop a communication system to achieve their prosperity. Plants utilize chemical compounds of their root exudates as the “languange”. Plants are the initiator of communications, since they define the purposes of building communication. Root exudates are released either to attract or to demenish the soil microbes target as an “invitation letter” to some microbes. To build a mycorrhizal association, for examples, plants issue sugars, amino acids and strygolactones to the rhizosphere. Fungi will reply the invitation by secreting flavonoid compounds that determine host-mycorrhizal specifications. The presence of flavonoids is another invitation to rhizobia to establish association in legume rhizosphere. Plants will select attracted bacteria to build the most host-specific rhizobium association by secreting canavanine compounds that are toxic to non-target rhizobia. Occasionally, an error happened in issuing invitation. When plant release strygolactone in a very low dosages, it will be failure to build mycorrhizal associations otherwise pathogen colonizations, although plants produce either phytoantisipine to prevent pathogens infection or phytoalexin to counter infected pathogens. Communication among roots of neighboring plants is conducted by producing allellopathy compound to limit root growth of the competitors. Invasive plants or weeds generally also produce catechine compounds over the allellophaty that will eliminate soil beneficial microbes of the indigenous plants. As a result, the native plants will be vulnerable to disease and lead to distinct. Responding to the presence of neighboring roots, plants also produce glucosinolate compounds. Glucocynolate consentration will be increased in line with the richness of vegetation biodiversity. These compounds are toxic to the pathogen, which is why plants cultivated in monoculture become more susceptible to disease. Furthermore, to improve soil glucocynolate and to manage the dynamics in the rhizosphere, need to a shift cultivation after several rotations of a commodity with the local varieties.


Keywords


Eksudat Akar, Komunikasi, Mikroba, Perakaran, Tanaman Bertetangga, Exudates, Communication, Microbe, Roots, Neighboring Plants

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2018/jsdl.v11i1.8190

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