Kontroversi Aplikasi dan Standar Mutu Biochar

Didiek Hadjar Goenadi, Laksmita Prima Santi

Abstract


Abstrak. Biochar merupakan material baru yang diteliti secara intensif dalam waktu sepuluh tahun terakhir di berbagai penjuru dunia. Hal ini dipicu oleh fakta bahwa tanah-tanah Terra Preta di wilayah Amazon, Amerika Selatan, dikenal sangat subur karena mengandung arang yang dibentuk dari pembakaran minim oksigen (pirolisis) ribuan tahun yang lalu. Dalam kondisi kemajuan teknologi seperti sekarang ini para peneliti mencoba untuk meniru dalam memperoleh material serupa yang kemudian dikenal secara luas dengan istilah biochar dan menguji manfaatnya terutama untuk perbaikan kondisi tanah agar menghasilkan pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman yang lebih baik, sekaligus mampu menjadi penghambat lepasnya karbon ke atmosfir (carbon sequestering). Sebagai sebuah topik riset yang baru tentu saja dapat dipahami bahwa hal tersebut menimbulkan pro- dan kontra, khususnya yang menyangkut manfaat positif secara luas. Pihak yang pro mendasarkannya pada banyak bukti tentang manfaat aplikasi biochar terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman seperti halnya juga terhadap sifat-sifat tanah. Sebaliknya yang kontra menekankan terbatasnya data yang tersedia sejauh ini dan adanya ketidak-konsistenan hasil yang dilaporkan. Ulasan berikut ini mencoba untuk melihat dari dua sudut tersebut untuk memberikan gambaran yang sebenarnya bagi para calon peminat riset dan/atau pengguna biochar untuk kepentingan perbaikan kesehatan dan produktivitas tanah. Pada akhir diskusi disampaikan perlunya persyaratan mutu biochar untuk memperoleh hasil yang dapat diperbandingkan.

Abstract. Biochar is a new material researched intensively within the last ten years in various parts of the world. This is fuelled by the fact that the lands of Terra Preta in the Amazon region of South America is known to be very fertile because it contains charcoal that was formed from the minimum oxygen combustion (pyrolysis) at times thousands of years ago. Under the conditions of technological advances like nowadays, researchers tried to replicate it in obtaining similar material which was then widely known by the term biochar and test its usefulness mainly to improved soil conditions in order to generate growth and better crop production and the same time capable of being a barrier to the release of carbon into the atmosphere (carbon sequestering). As a new research topic, it is understandable that it raises pros and cons, especially on its benefits. The pro-side emphasized on the proven beneficial application of biochar to improve growth and yield of crops as well as on soil properties. Others, rised the controversy focused on the limited data reported and somewhat inconsistency on the results. The following review is trying to look at it from the two angles to give the real picture for the prospective applicants of biochar such as researchers and users of biochar for the benefit of improving health and productivity of the soil. At the end of the discussion it is given the necessity for quality standard of biochar to obtain comparable results.

 


Keywords


Arang; Pirolisis; Pembenah Tanah; Kualitas; Produksi; Charcoal; Pyrolysis; Soil Conditions; Quality; Production

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2018/jsdl.v11i1.8189

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