Indikator Kualitas Tanah pada Lahan Bekas Penambangan

Achmad Rachman, Sutono sutono, Irawan Irawan, I Wayan Suastika

Abstract


Abstrak. Lahan dalam kawasan tambang-tambang mineral mengalami perubahan sifat fisik, kimia, dan biologi tanah serta lansekap yang sangat signifikan sebagai akibat dari berbagai aktifitas penambangan seperti land clearing, pembangunan fasilitas pendukung kegiatan penambangan, lalu lintas kendaraan berat, penggalian, penimbunan bahan galian, pengolahan hasil tambang atau bahan mineral, dan lainnya. Sangat penting untuk mengembalikan kualitas tanah seperti kondisi sebelum kegiatan penambangan sehingga lahan dapat difungsikan kembali untuk pertanian. Makalah ini membahas metode penilaian indeks kualitas tanah sehingga dapat dievaluasi dampak berbagai perlakuan reklamasi. Sejumlah hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan indeks kualitas tanah untuk tujuan tersebut memberikan hasil yang baik, mudah dilaksanakan dan mudah dipahami oleh pengguna. Pemilihan indikator kunci (minimun data set) dan nilai ambang batasnya, pada batas mana tanah dapat berfungsi optimal, sangat menentukan akurasi penetapan indeks kualitas tanah. Penskoran dan pembobotan dilakukan terhadap setiap individu indikator kunci yang kemudian diintegrasikan untuk mendapatkan satu nilai indeks kualitas tanah. Indikator kunci untuk mengevaluasi kualitas tanah pada lahan bekas tambang disarankan sebagai berikut: kandungan bahan organik tanah (SOM), reaksi tanah (pH), berat isi tanah (BD), kapasitas air tersedia (AWC), agregasi (WSA), dan respirasi tanah, namun dapat ditambahkan indikator lain sesuai tujuan evaluasi dan kondisi geografis lahan yang akan dievaluasi. Penilaian kualitas tanah dapat juga dilakukan menggunakan metode Scorecard. Evaluasi kualitas tanah pasca penambangan sebaiknya dilakukan sebelum pelaksanaan reklamasi untuk menentukan prioritas sifat-sifat tanah yang perlu perhatian lebih sehingga perlakuan reklamasi lebih terarah dan terukur dan selama pelaksanaan reklamasi untuk mengetahui arah perubahan yang terjadi.

Abstract. Land in the mining areas undergo changes in soil physical, chemical, and biological properties as well as landscape as a result of various mining activities namely land clearing, construction of facilities to support the operations, movement of vehicles, excavation, storage of overburden dump materials backfilling of excavated material, and mineral mined processing. It is essential to restore soil quality similar to the condition before mining operation so that it can be utilized for agriculture purposes. This paper discusses method for assessing soil quality index to allow evaluation of the impact of different reclamation treatments. Studies indicated that the use of soil quality index gave good result, easy to perform, and easy to understand by the end user. Selection of key indicators (minimum data set) and its threshold values, in which soil is functioning optimally, is essential for the accuracy of soil quality index determination. Scoring and weighing of the individual soil indicator was performed before integrating all key indicators to obtain a soil quality index. Key indicators for evaluating soil quality of reclaimed mine soils is recommended to include soil organic matter (SOM), soil reaction (pH), bulk density (BD), available water capacity (AWC), water stable aggregate (WSA), and soil respiration, however, other indicators could be added depending upon the goal of assessment and geographical condition of land that is subject to evaluation. Qualitative assessment of soil quality can also be conducted using scorecard method. Evaluation of post-mining soil quality should be conducted before any reclamation activities to priorities soil properties that need more attention, so that reclamation treatments will be more focus and measurable and on on-going reclamation to monitor the trend of change.


Keywords


Kualitas Tanah, Indeks Kualitas Tanah, Indikator Kunci, Lahan Bekas Tambang, Reklamasi, Soil Quality, Soil Quality Index, Key Indicator, Post-Mining Land, Reclamation

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2018/jsdl.v11i1.8185

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