Teknologi Pengelolaan Tanaman Pangan dalam Beradaptasi Terhadap Perubahan Iklim pada Lahan Sawah

I Nyoman Widiarta

Abstract


Abstrak. Produksi tanaman pangan khususnya padi, jagung dan kedelai di Indonesia dituntut terus untuk ditingkatkan dalam kondisi pengaruh negatif perubahan iklim. Perubahan iklim mempengaruhi produktvitas, luas areal tanam dan panen tanaman pangan. Kenaikan suhu udara, perubahan pola dan jumlah curah hujan, kenaikan salinitas air tanah, menurunkan produktivitas tanaman. Meningkatnya frekuensi dan intensitas iklim ekstrem (banjir, kekeringan dan angin kencang), ledakan hama/penyakit dan meningkatnya muka air laut mempengaruhi pola tanam, indeks panen, mengurangi luas areal panen dan luas kawasan pertanian. Sejalan dengan Rencana Aksi Nasional Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim (RAN-API) Indonesia telah mengembangkan teknologi: (1) Varietas tanaman yang toleran terhadap cekaman abiotik, (2) Teknologi budidaya tanaman, (3) Teknologi irigasi berselang, dan (4) Teknologi untuk menciptakan kondisi lingkungan yang kondusif untuk pertumbuhan tanaman. Varietas adaptif perubahan iklim dikemas dengan teknologi budidaya spesifik lokasi dalam suatu paket Pengelolaan Tanaman Terpadu dan teknologi “Jajar legowo super”. Untuk padi telah dikembangkan Kalender Tanam Terpadu yang dapat diakses melalui laman (web), short message service (SMS), dan aplikasi Android, sebagai salah satu alat untuk merakit komponen teknologi spesifik lokasi. Selain itu tersedia dikembangkan Layanan Konsultasi Padi yang dapat diakses melalui internet.

Abstract. Crop production, especially of rice, corn and soybeans in Indonesia must be continually increased to cope with the negative effects of climate change. Climate change affects crop productivity, planting and harvested areas. The increase in air temperature, changes in rainfall patterns and amount, increase in groundwater salinity, lead to the decrease of crop productivity. The increased frequency and intensity of extreme climate (floods, drought and strong winds), pest and diseases infestation and rising sea levels affect the cropping pattern and harvest index, and reduce harvested area. In line with the National Action Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change (RAN-API), Indonesia has developed adaptive technologies of (1) Improved plant varieties tolerant to abiotic stresses, (2) Crop cultivation, (3) Intermittent irrigation technology, and (4) Technology to create a conducive environment for plant growth. Climate change adaptive varieties paired with site-specific farming technologies has been developed into packages of Integrated Crop Management and "jajar legowo super" system. For rice, Integrated Cropping Calendar which can be accessed via the home page (web), short message service (SMS), and Android applications has been developed, as one of the tools to assemble components technologies. Rice Consulting Services has also been available and can be accessed via the internet.

 


Keywords


Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim; Pengelolaan Tanaman; Tanaman Pangan; Banjir; Kekeringan; Climate Change Adaptation; Crop Management; Food Crops; Floods; Droughts;

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2018/jsdl.v10i2.7027

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