Pemanfaatan Teknologi Penginderaan Jauh untuk Monitoring Kejadian Iklim Ekstrem di Indonesia

Erna Sri Adiningsih, Parwati Sofan, Indah Prasasti

Abstract


Abstrak. Monitoring iklim ekstrim dan dampaknya terhadap pertanian di Indonesia memerlukan data dan sarana pengamatan yang luas dan intensif. Teknologi penginderaan jauh dapat memberikan solusi dalam monitoring iklim ekstrim dan dampaknya secara luas dan cepat. Tulisan ini mengulas tentang pemanfaatan teknologi penginderaan jauh untuk monitoring cuaca dan iklim ekstrim serta dampaknya terhadap kekeringan dan banjir khususnya bagi sektor pertanian, berdasarkan hasil-hasil penelitian yang telah dilakukan di Indonesia dan beberapa negara lain. Beberapa modelyang telah dikembangkan dan diaplikasikan di Indonesia menggunakan data penginderaan jauh resolusi rendah dan menengah secara tunggal maupun gabungan. Beberapa variabel yang dikaji dan diulas antara lain suhu awan, laju curah hujan, suhu permukaan tanah, indeks vegetasi dan turunannya, indeks lengas tanah dan turunannya dapat merepresentasikan kondisi cuaca dan iklim ekstrim, serta kondisi lahan yang rawan kekeringan atau banjir khususnya di Pulau Jawa dan Bali. Ketelitian model yang telah dikembangkan hingga saat ini dengan data GMS, MTSAT, TRMM, QMorph, MODIS, AVHRR, Landsat-7, SPOT-4, dan ALOS umumnya memadai untuk level nasional hingga level kabupaten dengan koefisien keragaman rata-rata berkisar antara 60% hingga 80%. Meskipun demikian, ketelitian model yang telah dihasilkan dan diaplikasikan masih perlu ditingkatkan. Sistem monitoring berbasis penginderaan jauh memiliki prospek yang sangat baik untuk terus digunakan di masa depan dengan memanfaatkan data yang lebih baru seperti Himawari-8, NPP-VIIRS, Landsat-8, SPOT-6, dan SPOT-7.

Abstract. Monitoring of extreme climate and its impacts on agriculture in Indonesia need a lot of data as well as wide and intensive observation network. Remote sensing technology could provide better solution for a broader and rapid monitoring system of extreme climate and its impacts. This paper describes the applications of remote sensing technology on monitoring extreme weather and climate and their impacts on droughts and floods especially in agricultural sector, based on previous research results conducted in Indonesia and several other countries. Some models which have been developed and applied in Indonesia used low and medium resolution data single and combined techniques. Some derived variables were reviewed such as cloud temperature, rainfall rate, land surface temperature, vegetation index and its derivatives, soil moisture index and its derivatives could represent extreme weather and climate condition, as well as land susceptibility to droughts and floods in Java and Bali islands. The accuracy of models using GMS, MTSAT, TRMM, QMorph, MODIS, AVHRR, Landsat-7, SPOT-4, and ALOS to date is generally sufficient at national to district levels with averaged determinant coefficients range between 60% and 80%. However, the accuracy of resulted and applied models still need to be enhanced. Remote sensing-based monitoring system has a good prospect to be continuously implemented in the future using newer data such as Himawari-8, NPP-VIIRS, Landsat-8, SPOT-6, and SPOT-7.


Keywords


Teknologi Penginderaan Jauh; Cuaca Ektrem; Iklim Esktrem; Kekeringan; Banjir; Remote Sensing Technology; Weather Extreme; Climate Extreme; Droughts; Floods;

Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2018/jsdl.v10i2.7025

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan