Peranan Pupuk Organik dalam Peningkatan Produktivitas Tanah dan Tanaman

Wiwik Hartatik, Husnain Husnain, Ladiyani R. Widowati

Abstract


Abstrak: Pupuk organik berperan dalam meningkatkan kesuburan fisik, kimia dan biologi tanah serta mengefisienkan
penggunaan pupuk anorganik. Kualitas dan komposisi pupuk organik bervariasi tergantung dari bahan dasar kompos dan proses
pembuatannya. Penggunaan tanaman legum baik berupa tanaman lorong (alley cropping) maupun tanaman penutup tanah (cover
crop) serta bahan organik insitu, perlu diintensifkan untuk mendukung pemanfaatan pupuk organik non komersial dan
pemulihan kesuburan tanah.Pemberdayaan masyarakat dan kelompok tani dalam pengadaan pupuk organik dapat dilakukan
melalui: a) melatih petani membuat pupuk organik insitu yang berasal dari kotoran ternak dan sisa tanaman yang
dikomposkan;b) mendorong petani melakukan diversifikasi usaha pertanian berbasis ternak; dan c) mendorong petani
melakukan pengelolaan bahan organik insitu terutama pada lahan kering. Pemanfaatan pupuk organik telah diterapkan dalam
sistem budidaya pertanian organik (organic farming) dan System rice of intensification (SRI). Pemberian pupuk organik yang
dikombinasikan dengan pupuk anorganik, telah diterapkan dalam sistem pengelolaan tanaman terpadu (PTT), sistem integrasi
padi/palawija dan ternak (SIPT), sistem pertanian mandiri yang mengintegrasikan ternak dan tanaman crop livestock system
(CLS).

Abstract: It is inevitable that organic fertilizer plays a major role in increasing the fertility of the physical, chemical and biological
as well as the efficient use of inorganic fertilizers. The main composition of organic fertilizer when it decomposes will consist of
mostly water and cellulose, hemiselulose, lignin, and a small portion main macro nutrients, secondary macro nutrients, micro
elements and silica. There is also a growth regulating enzymes and vitamins as a byproduct of microbial decomposition. The main
component or specific parameters have a major role and the speed of the process of transformation of organic fertilizer into the
form of mineral nutrients and the end product is humus. The significance of organic fertilizer is widely recognized by agricultural
researchers and practitioners. In addition the use of organic fertilizers in paddy fields and dry land cultivation system of
agriculture that combines inorganic fertilizer and organic, has strived implemented by the government in this case the Ministry of
Agriculture that the system of integrated crop management (ICM), system integration paddy/crops and livestock (SIPT), an
independent agricultural systems that integrate livestock and crop plants livestock system (CLS). If the awareness of farmers on
the use of organic fertilizers increases, the availability of both in situ and have to come from outside should be available in
sufficient quantity and good quality. Technological innovation of Agricultural Research and Development Agency to support the
use of organic fertilizers continue to research and develop. Currently available guidebooks and technological innovation, such as
land management guidelines, management guidelines of organic materials and organic fertilizer, granular organic fertilizer
product (Tithoganik, POG, POCr), and decomposers products to accelerate the process of decomposition (such as M-dec).
Opportunities and challenges in increasing stakeholder awareness is not a barrier in optimizing organic fertilizer. The key is the
synergistic integration between institutions regulatory, technical institutions, Research Agency, producers and users in the
implementation of socialization, production, guidance and supervision.

 


Keywords


Pupuk Organik; Produktivitas Tanah; Tanaman; Organic Fertilizer; Soil; Crop Productivity;

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jsdl.v9n2.2015.%25p

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