Peranan Bahan Organik dalam Sistem Integrasi Sawit-Sapi

Husnain Husnain, Dedi Nursyamsi

Abstract


Abstrak. Sistem integrasi sawit-sapi merupakan salah satu program diversitas usaha tani. Dengan total luas lahan perkebunan kelapa sawit mencapai 10,46 juta ha, sistem integrasi sawit-sapi merupakan alternatif terbaik untuk mencapai target swasembaga pangan terutama daging sapi melalui optimalisasi penggunaan lahan dengan memanfaatkan limbah tanaman sawit dan industri sebagai sumber pakan ternak. Sumber pakan ternak untuk usaha penggemukan, pembibitan dan sapi potong dapat berasal dari cover crop bila tersedia, sekitar 30-65% dari pelepah sawit, 10-70% bungkil inti sawit, dan 20-35% bahan non sawit. Sementara itu limbah ternak sapi, biogas, limbah tanaman kelapa sawit (pelepah, daun sawit, dan sisa pohon) dan limbah industri kelapa sawit (tandan buah kosong, dried decanted sludge, palm oil mill effluent dan fly ash) dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber bahan organik yang dapat meningkatkan kesuburan dan kualitas tanah. Bahan organik sangat diperlukan dalam memperbaiki sifat fisik, kimia, dan biologi tanah. Disamping itu sistem integrasi sawit-sapi merupakan teknologi adaptif dan mitigatif terhadap perubahan iklim dengan aplikasi sistem biogas maka diperoleh energi gas untuk keperluan rumah tangga dan industri sekaligus mampu menurunkan emisi gas methane. Paper ini merupakan review hasil-hasil penelitian integrasi tanaman-ternak berbasis kelapa sawit terutama informasi potensi sumber bahan organik yang bermanfaat untuk memperbaiki sifat fisik, kimia dan biologi tanah.

Abstract. Integrated crop-livestock based oil palm is an example of diversity in agricultural system. With a total area of oil palm plantations reached 10.46 million ha, very potential to support integrated crop-livestock farming systems. The main target in developing this systems is to achieved food i.e beef self sufficiency through land optimalization and by using plant residue and oil palm industry waste for cattle feed. The cattle feed sources for beef meat production and breeding could be from cover crop if available, 30-65% fronds, 10-70% palm kernel cake and 20-35% non palm sources. In other side, various waste material such as manure, biogas sludge, plant residue (fronds, palm leaves and trunk) and industrial waste (empty fruit bunches, solid waste, dried decanted sludge, palm oil mill effluent and fly ash) are potential source of organic matter. Organic matter is important in improving soil fertility and quality. Besides, integrated crop-livestock based oil palm farming system is also found as an adaptive technology to cope climate change. Biogas installation as a component in this systems able to reduce methane emission. The energy produce through biogas installation in this system can be used for household and industry and able to reduce methane emissions. This paper reviews the results of research of integration crop-livestock based oil palm aims to provide information focused on potential sources of organic matter produced which useful to improve the biological, physical and chemical properties of soil.

 


Keywords


Sistem Integrasi Sawit-Sapi; Bahan Organik; Unsur Hara; Limbah Tanaman Kelapa Sawit; Limbah Industri Kelapa Sawit; Crop Livestock System Cow-Oil Palm; Organic Matter; Nutrient; Oil Palm Plantation Waste; Oil Palm Industrial Waste;

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2018/jsdl.v9i1.6517

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