Sistem Surjan: Kearifan Lokal Petani Lahan Pasang Surut dalam Mengantisipasi Perubahan Iklim

Ani Susilawati, Dedi Nursyamsi

Abstract


Abstrak. Sektor pertanian merupakan sektor yang paling rentan terhadap perubahan iklim yang berpotensi memberikan dampak
besar terhadap ketahanan pangan nasional. Selain perubahan iklim, pembangunan pertanian menghadapi berbagai kendala, antara
lain alih fungsi lahan pertanian menjadi non pertanian sehingga usaha pengembangan pertanian diarahkan ke lahan marginal
seperti lahan rawa pasang surut. Penataan lahan ini perlu dilakukan agar kondisi lahan sesuai untuk kebutuhan tanaman sehingga
produktivitasnya menjadi optimal. Sistem surjan adalah salah satu bentuk penataan lahan yang biasa dilakukan oleh petani lahan
pasang surut dan terbukti mampu mengantisipasi perubahan iklim. Sistem ini memiliki perspektif budaya, ekologi, dan ekonomi,
yang memadukan antara kearifan lokal dengan inovasi teknologi terkini. Paket teknologi dalam sistem surjan meliputi:
pengelolaan air sistem satu arah yang dilengkapi pintu otomatis (flapgates) dan tabat (stoplog), penggunaan tanaman adaftif lahan
pasang surut, pengolahan tanah minimum, kalender tanam rawa terpadu, aplikasi DSS lahan rawa pasang surut, dan penggunaan
pupuk biotara.

Abstract. Agricultural sector is the most vulnerable sector to climate change that could potentially contribute a great impact on
national food security. Beside climate change, agricultural development faces many obstacles, including a conversion of
agricultural land into non-agriculture so that agriculture extensification are directed to marginal land areas such as tidal
swamplands. Lands arrangement is needed to make favorable soil condition to plants growth so that its productivity increases.
Surjan system is a land arrangement which is usually applicated by tidal swampland farmers and has high ability to anticipate
climate change. This system has cultural, ecological, and economical perspectives which combines local knowledge with the latest
technological innovations. The technologies in surjan system include: one way system of water management with automatic door
(flapgates) and tabat (stoplog), use of adaptive plant on tidal swampland, soil minimum tillage, applicatiopn of integrated cropping
calender and DSS of tidal swamplands as well as use of biotara fertilizer.


Keywords


Sistem Surjan; Lahan Pasang Surut; Perubahan Iklim; Surjan System; Tidal Swampland; Climate Change;

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2018/jsdl.v8i1.6442

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