Pengelolaan Hara dan Teknologi Pemupukan Mendukung Swasembada Pangan di Indonesia

Husnain Husnain, Antonius Kasno, Sri Rochayati

Abstract


Abstrak. Peranan pupuk menjadi vital bagi perkembangan pertanian menuju swasembada pangan. Namun demikian aplikasi pupuk belum dilakukan secara efektif dan efisien dimana jenis pupuk, dosis yang diberikan, cara aplikasi dan timing saat pemupukan belum banyak diperhatikan. Rekomendasi pupuk juga seringkali berlaku secara umum tanpa mengindahkan status hara dalam tanah. Permasalahan di atas terlihat dari trend produktivitas tanaman pangan dibandingkan dengan trend konsumsi pupuk, dimana peningkatan konsumsi pupuk belum diikuti oleh peningkatan produktivitas tanaman pangan terutama padi dan kedelai. Pengelolaan hara makro N, P, dan K saja tanpa dibarengi dengan pengelolaan hara mikro dan benefisial seperti Silika menyebabkan stagnansi produktivitas tanaman pangan. Dalam artikel ini dibahas secara komprehensif informasi terkait unsur hara, klasifikasi pupuk, perkembangan produktivitas pangan dan konsumsi pupuk, penetapan kebutuhan pupuk hingga rekomendasi teknik aplikasi pupuk agar pemberian pupuk lebih efektif dan efisien.

Abstract. Fertilizer is a major important factor for agricultural development towards food self-sufficiency. However, application of fertilizer has not been carried out effectively and efficiently. Factors affected efficiency use of fertilizer such as type of fertilizer, rate of fertilizer, application method and the timing has not received much attention. Fertilizer recommendations are also often applies in general regardless of the status of nutrients in the soil. Trend of food productivity and fertilizer consumption might explain the problem related to the fertilizer effectivity. An increase in fertilizer consumption has not been followed by an increase in productivity of food crops, especially for rice and soybeans. Application of N, P and K without consider micro nutrients and beneficial elements such as Silica cause stagnation of crop productivity at certain level and period. In this article, the information related to nutrients, classification of fertilizer, general condition of food productivity and fertilizer consumption, fertilizer recommendation and application technique are discussed.


Keywords


Fertilizer; Balance Fertilization; Food Self Sufficiency; Pupuk; Pemupukan Berimbang; Swasembada Pangan

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References


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Kasno, A., Nurjaya, dan D. Setyorini. 2006. Kalibrasi hara P dan K lahan sawah bermineral liat 1:1 untuk padi berpotensi hasil tinggi. 89-109. Dalam Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sumber daya Lahan Pertanian. Bogor, 14 - 15 September 2006. Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Lahan Pertanian Bogor.

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Krauss, A. 2004. Balanced fertilization, the key to improve fertilizer use efficiency. In Proceeding of AFA 10th International Annual Conference. Cairo, Egypt 20-22 January 2004.

Ma, J. F. 2009. Silicon uptake and translocation in plants. In The Proceedings of the International Plant Nutrition Colloquium XVI.

Adiningsih, J.S., S. Moersidi., M. Sudjadi, dan A.M. Fagi. 1989. Evaluasi kerperluan fosfat pada lahan sawah intensifikasi di Jawa. hlm. 63-89. Dalam Prosiding Lokakarya Nasional Efisiensi Penggunaan Pupuk. Cipayung, 1988.

Amanah, W.M. 2016. Pengaruh Aplikasi Silika dan Manajemen Pemberian Air Terhadap Pertumbuhan Padi (Oryza Sativa L.) dan Infeksi Penyakit Blas yang Ditanam pada Ultisols. Skripsi. Jurusan Agroekoteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa.

APPI. 2016. Statistik. Asosiasi Produsen Pupuk Indonesia. Data diunduh 7 April 2016.

Balai Penelitian Tanah. 2012. Informasi tersedia dalam http://balittanah.litbang.deptan.go.id/

BPS. 2015. Statistik Indonesia. Badan Pusat Statistik Indonesia. Jakarta.

Brady, N.C, dan R.R. Weil. 2002. The Nature and Properties of Soils 13th edition. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. 935 pp

FAO. 1997. FAO Land and Water Bulletin 6. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome.

Fernandez, V., T. Sotiropoulos, dan P. Brown. 2013. Foliar Fertilization, Scientific Principles and Field Practices. In Proceeding of International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA) Conference. Paris, France.

Hartatik, W. dan J. Sri Adiningsih. 2003. Evaluasi rekomendasi pemupukan NPK pada lahan sawah yang mengalami pelandaian produktivitas (levelling off). Hlm. 17 – 36. Dalam Prosiding Seminar Nasional Inovasi Teknologi Sumberdaya Tanah dan Iklim. Bogor, 14 - 15 Oktober 2003. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanah dan Agroklimat.

Husnain, Nurjaya, I W. Suastika., dan H. Wibowo. 2014. Uji efektifitas pupuk an-organik Vitasul granular terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman padi, jagung dan bawang merah. Laporan Penelitian. Balai Penelitian Tanah, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembang-an Pertanian. 32 pp.

Husnain, S. Rochayati, dan I. Adamy. 2012. Pengelolaan Hara Silika pada Tanah Pertanian di Indonesia. Hal. 237-246. Dalam Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknologi Pengelolaan Pemupukan dan Pemuliha Lahan Terdegradasi. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, Kementerian Pertanian.

Husnain, T. Wakatsuki, dan T. Masunaga. 2010. Field assessment of nutrient balance under intensive rice-farming systems, and its effects on the sustainability of rice production in Java Island, Indonesia. Journal of Agric. Food and Env. Sci. 4 (1): 1-11.

Husnain. 2009. Nutrient Dynamics in Watersheds dan Lowland Sawah in Java Island in Relation to the Sustainability of Sawah Farming Systems in Indonesia. PhD Dissertation. The United Graduate School of Agricultureal Sciences of Tottori University.

IPNI. 2014. 4R Plant Nutrition: A Manual for Improving the Management of Plant nutrition. International Plant Nutrition Institute. http://www.ipni.net/. Accessed on January 2014.

Indonesian Soil Research Institute. 2012. Annual Project Report: Improving Fertilizer Use Efficiency in Indonesia, Research Collaboration IMPHOS-ISRI. Indonesian Soil Research Institute

Kasno, A. 2010. Nutrient balance at integrated management on lowland rice which is dominated by 1: clay mineral for high potential rice yields. J. Trop Soils 15 (2):119 - 126.

Kasno, A., Nurjaya, dan D. Setyorini. 2006. Kalibrasi hara P dan K lahan sawah bermineral liat 1:1 untuk padi berpotensi hasil tinggi. 89-109. Dalam Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sumber daya Lahan Pertanian. Bogor, 14 - 15 September 2006. Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Lahan Pertanian Bogor.

Kementerian Pertanian. 2015a. Rencana Strategis Kementerian Pertanian Tahun 2015-2019. Kemen-terian Pertanian.

Kementerian Pertanian. 2015b. Kinerja satu tahun Kementerian Pertanian, Oktober 2014-Oktober 2015. Kementerian Pertanian.

Krauss, A. 2004. Balanced fertilization, the key to improve fertilizer use efficiency. In Proceeding of AFA 10th International Annual Conference. Cairo, Egypt 20-22 January 2004.

Ma, J. F. 2009. Silicon uptake and translocation in plants. In The Proceedings of the International Plant Nutrition Colloquium XVI.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2018/jsdl.v10i1.6209

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