SERAPAN HARA N, P, K PADA TUJUH NOMOR HARAPAN SERAI DAPUR PADA TANAH LASOTOL / The Nutrient Uptake of N, P, and K of Seven Promising Numbers of Lemongrass in Latosol Soil

Octivia Trisilawati, Deliah Seswita, M. Syakir

Abstract


The constrain of lemongrass cultivation is crop nutrient requirement does not estimate yet as a reference for determining the dosage of fertilizer needed to produce good yield and quality. The study aims to determine the NPK uptake of seven lemongrass promising numbers grown in latosol soil in Cibinong research garden, Bogor, namely: Cyci 0003, 0004, 0006, 0009, 0012, 0018 and local. Seven lemongrass promising numbers were from Boyolali, Yogyakarta, Cipatat, Cisaroni, East Nusa Tenggara, Bogor, and Cibinong which had been characterized. The design used was randomized block design with four replications and 25 plants per plots. The parameters observed were number of tillers, plant height, leaf length and width, stem diameter weight per clump, oil yield and quality, and chlorophyll content. The results showed that there were differences of nutrient uptake pattern, as well as the amount of fertilizer requirement N, P and K on all seven promising numbers of lemongrass. Local and Cyci 0003 had highest oil and sitral production compared to other lemongrass promising numbers. To generate the essential oil yield 81,39 kg ha-1 and production of citral 14,25 tonnes ha-1, Cyci 0003 absorbed 284,65 kg Urea, 49,15 kg SP-36, and 308,95 kg KCl ha-1, while local Cyci absorbed 230,29 kg Urea, 49,97 kg SP-36, and 161,8 kg KCl ha-1 to produce 97,94 kg essential oils yield ha-1 and 16,01 tonnes citral ha-1. Essential oil content of Lemongrass increased with increasing uptake of N and P, and citral oil content increased with increasing nutrient P uptake. Local Cyci promising number was relatively efficient in N, P, and K nutrient absorption.

Keywords: Cymbopogon citratus Stapf., promising number, yield, quality, the uptake of N, P, and K.

 

Abstrak

Salah satu kendala dalam pengembangan budidaya serai dapur adalah belum ada perhitungan kebutuhan hara tanaman secara riil sebagai acuan dalam menentukan dosis pupuk yang dibutuhkan untuk menghasilkan produksi dan mutu terna yang baik. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui serapan hara N, P, dan K dari tujuh nomor harapan serai dapur yang ditanam di tanah latosol. Tujuh nomor harapan serai dapur yang telah dikarakterisasi yaitu Cyci 0003, Cyci 0004, Cyci 0006, Cyci 0009, Cyci 0012, Cyci 0018 dan Cyci lokal berasal dari Boyolali, Yogyakarta, Cipatat, Cisaroni, NTT, Bogor, dan Cibinong ditanam di kebun percobaan Cibinong, Bogor. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok, dengan 4 ulangan dan jumlah tanaman sebanyak 25 per petak. Parameter yang diamati meliputi jumlah anakan, tinggi tanaman, panjang dan lebar daun, diameter batang, bobot kering terna per rumpun, kadar minyak, mutu minyak, serta kandungan klorofil. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan pola serapan hara, jumlah serta kebutuhan pupuk N, P, dan K dari ke tujuh nomor harapan serai dapur. Cyci lokal dan Cyci 0003 menghasilkan minyak atsiri dan sitral tertinggi. Untuk menghasilkan minyak atsiri 81,39 kg ha-1 dan sitral 14,25 t ha-1, Cyci 0003 menyerap 284,65 kg Urea, 49,15 kg SP-36, dan 308,95 kg KCl ha-1, sedangkan untuk menghasilkan minyak atsiri 97,94 kg ha-1 dan sitral 16,01 ton ha-1, Cyci lokal menyerap 230,29 kg Urea, 49,97 kg SP-36 dan 161,8 kg KCl ha-1. Kadar minyak atsiri serai dapur meningkat sejalan dengan peningkatan serapan hara N dan P, dan kadar minyak sitral meningkat seiring dengan peningkatan serapan hara P. Cyci lokal merupakan nomor harapan serai dapur yang relatif efisien dalam penyerapan hara N, P, dan K.

Kata kunci: Cymbopogon citratus Stapf, nomor harapan, produksi, mutu, serapan hara N, P dan K.

 


Keywords


Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.;promising number;yield;quality;the uptake of NPK.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v23n2.2017.105-111

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