MULTIPLIKASI TUNAS IN VITRO BERDASARKAN JENIS EKSPLAN PADA ENAM GENOTIPE TEBU (Saccharum officinarum L.) / The In Vitro Shoots Multiplication Based on Explants Type on Six Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Genotypes

Alfia Annur Aini Azizi, Ika Roostika Tambunan, Darda Efendi

Abstract


Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is propagated vegetatively using stem cuttings. Plant propagation can utilize tissue culture techniques because it offers a faster propagation time than conventional methods, need less mother plants and labor, planting is not influenced by the season, and produce pathogen-free guaranteed seedlings. This study aims to determine the optimal type of explant for shoot multiplication of six sugarcane genotypes. The study was conducted at the Tissue Culture Laboratory, Plant Cell Tissue Biology Group, Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development, Bogor from May 2015 to June 2016. Explants from six genotypes of sugarcane (PS 881, PS 865, GMP 3, TK 386, PSJK 922, and PS 862) were grown on regeneration media based on explant type treatments (one shoot, two shoots, and three shoots per explant) that were subcultured every three weeks. Subcultures were conducted up to nine times, then observations of survival rate, shoot regeneration rate, number of new shoots, shoot height were made on the third, sixth, and ninth subcultures. The results showed interaction between genotypes and explant type were not significantly different except to the shoot regeneration in the sixth subculture. Each genotype had different multiplication rate, and PSJK 922 produced the lowest survival explant, shoot regeneration, and number of new shoot in the ninth subculture. Two shoots explant were the optimal type of explant for in vitro shoots multiplication with 4 new shoots per explant in the ninth subculture.

Keywords: frequent subculture, micropropagation, one shoot explant, two shoots explant, three shoots explant

 

Abstrak

Tebu (Saccharum officinarum L.) umumnya diperbanyak secara vegetatif menggunakan stek batang. Perbanyakan tanaman dapat memanfaatkan teknik kultur jaringan karena memiliki keunggulan di antaranya, waktu perbanyakan lebih cepat dari metode konvensional, tidak memerlukan tanaman induk dan tenaga kerja dalam jumlah banyak, penanaman tidak dipengaruhi musim, serta bibit yang dihasilkan lebih terjamin bebas patogen. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan jenis eksplan yang optimal untuk multiplikasi tunas in vitro enam genotipe tebu. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan, Kelompok Peneliti Biologi Sel dan Jaringan, Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian, Bogor pada Mei 2015 hingga Juni 2016. Eksplan dari enam genotipe tebu (PS 881, PS 865, GMP 3, TK 386, PSJK 922, dan PS 862) ditanam pada media regenerasi berdasarkan perlakuan jenis eksplan (satu tunas, dua tunas, dan tiga tunas per eksplan) yang disubkultur setiap tiga minggu. Subkultur dilakukan hingga sembilan kali, dan pengamatan daya hidup eksplan, daya regenerasi tunas, pertambahan tunas per eksplan serta tinggi tunas dilakukan pada subkultur ke tiga, ke enam, dan ke sembilan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan interaksi genotipe dan jenis eksplan tidak berpengaruh nyata kecuali terhadap daya regenerasi tunas pada subkultur ke enam. Keenam genotipe memiliki tingkat multiplikasi tunas yang berbeda, dan PSJK 922 menghasilkan daya hidup eksplan, daya regenerasi tunas, dan pertambahan tunas terendah pada subkultur ke sembilan. Eksplan dua tunas merupakan jenis eksplan yang optimal untuk multiplikasi tunas in vitro dengan pertambahan 4 tunas per eksplan pada subkultur ke sembilan.

Kata kunci: Subkultur berulang, mikropropagasi, eksplan satu tunas, eksplan dua tunas, eksplan tiga tunas


Keywords


frequent subculture; micropropagation; one shoot explant;two shoots explant;three shoots explant

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v23n2.2017.90-97

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