EFISIENSI MEDIA KULTUR DAN APLIKASI TEMPORARY IMMERSION SYSTEM PADA EMBRIOGENESIS SOMATIK KOPI ARABIKA / Efficiency of Culture Media and Aplication Temporary Immersion Systemon on Somatic Embryogenesis Arabica Coffee

Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim, RR. Sri Hartati, Rubiyo Rubiyo, Agus Purwito, Sudarsono Sudarsono

Abstract


In vitro culture requires sucrose as carbon source and seaweed gel for condensing media.  The price of sucrose and agar were quite expensive, causing difficulties in plant propagation using somatic embryogenesis technique. The purpose of this study was to examine the possibility to utilize sugar and commercial agar in somatic embryogenesis of Arabica coffee. The study was conducted in the Agricultural Superior Seed Development Unit, Indonesian Center Estate Crops Research and Development from May 2013 to June 2015.The first stage, calli were transferred into regeneration  medium with tested added sucrose 35 g L-1+phytagel 2.5g L-1, and sugar 35 g L-1 +(phytagel 2.5 g L-1 or commercial agar 9 g L-1). In the second one, torpedo stage embryos transfered into media germination with examined sucrose 40 g L-1+ phytagel (2.5g L-1or 1.5g L-1), sugar40 g L-1 + (phytagel 2.5g L-1 or commercial agar 9 g L-1). The third stage,torpedos transferred into Temporary Immersion System (RITA), treatment examined sucrose and sugar.Experiments were arranged in completely randomized design with 10, 20 and 3 replication. The first stage, results showed  sugar and commercial agar couldnot substitute sucrose and phytagel on regeneration media because it can reduce calli fresh weight and number of somatic embryos. The germination stage, sugar + phytagel (2.5 and 1.5 g L-1) can still be recommended, but not for sugar + commercial agar. Sugarin RITA may be used because had no significant effect on all parameters observed.

Key words : Coffea  arabika L., somatic embryogenesis, sugar, commercial agar, RITA.

 

Abstrak

Perkembangan dan pertumbuhan embriogenesis somatik memerlukan sukrosa sebagai sumber karbon, dan agar untuk memadatkan media. Harga sukrosa dan phytagel yang mahal merupakan kendala dalam perbanyakan tanaman menggunakan teknik embriogenesis somatik. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengkaji kemungkinan penggunaan gula pasir dan agar komersial dalam embriogenesis somatik kopi Arabika. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan Tanaman, Unit Pengembangan Benih Unggul Pertanian, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian Indonesia dari Mei 2013 sampai Juni 2015. Tahap pertama, kalus disubkultur pada media regenerasi. Perlakuan yang digunakan pemberian sukrosa 35 g L-1 +  phytagel2,5 g L-1dan gula pasir 35 g L-1 + (phytagel 2,5 g L-1atau agar komersial  9 g L-1). Tahap kedua, embrio fase torpedo disubkultur pada media perkecambahan. Perlakuan yang digunakan pemberian sukrosa 40 g L-1 + phytagel (2,5 g L-1 atau 1,5 g L-1),dan gula pasir 40 g L-1  + (phytagel 2,5  g L-1atau agar komersial 9 g L-1). Tahap ketiga adalah subkultur torpedo ke Temporary Immersion System (RITA). Perlakuan yang digunakan adalah pemberian sukrosa dan gula pasir. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 10, 20 dan 3 ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gula pasir dan agar komersial tidak dapat menggantikan sukrosa dan phytagel pada media regenerasi kalus kopi Arabika karena dapat menurunkan bobot basah kalus dan jumlah embrio somatik. Pada media perkecambahan pemberian gula pasir + phytagel  (2,5 dan 1,5 g L-1) masih dapat direkomendasikan, tetapi tidak untuk  penggunaan gula pasir + agar komersial. Pemakaian gula pasir pada RITA dapat digunakan karena tidak memberikan hasil yang berbeda nyata untuk semua peubah yang diamati.

Kata kunci : Agar komersial, Coffea arabika L., embriogensis somatik, gula pasir, RITA

 


Keywords


Agar komersial; Coffea arabika L; embriogensis somatik; gula pasir; RITA

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v23n1.2017.45-54

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