BIOLOGI Aspidomorpha miliaris, F. PADA BEBERAPA KONSENTRASI EKSTRAK DAUN GAMBIR

. ADRIA, HERWITA IDRIS

Abstract


Aspidomorpha miliaris. F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) termasuk hama penting pada tanaman Ipomoeaceae, Convolvulaceae dan Cucurbitaceae yang pengendalian populasinya perlu diarahkan memakai insektisida botanis, mengingat produk dai tanaman ini umumnya bcroricntasi pangan. Gambir (Uncaria gambir, Roxb), merupakan salah satu tanaman sumber bahan pestisida botanis yang potensial, karena daun tanaman ini mengandung senyawa kimia berupa catechin, tannin catecu (tannat), querchitin dan beberapa senyawa lainnya. Sehubungan dengan itu lelah dilakukan penelitian tentang aspek biologis A. miliaris pada beberapa konsentrasi ekstrak daun gambir di Kebun Percobaan Laing Solok mulai bulan Juli 2001 sampai Januari 2002. Penelitian memakai rancangan acak lengkap dengan 7 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan, masing-masing perlakuan adalah ekstrak daun gambir konsentrasi 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 7500 ppm dan lanpa ekstrak (0 ppm) sebagai kontrol. Parameter pengamatan meliputi persentase kematian larva, pupa dan imago, persentase penetasan telur dan emcrgensi pupa, fckunditi imago, penurunan volume makan dan panjang siklus hidup. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun gambir mcmiliki sifat insektisidal yang baik sehingga mampu mempengaruhi aspek biologis dari serangga A. miliaris. Dalam konsentrasi 5000 ppm dan 7500 ppm bahan ini dapat menyebabkan kematian terhadap larva instar III, IV, V, VI sebesar 65.20%, 62.00%, 55.20%, 46.80% dan 79.40%, 74.20%, 67.80%, 57.00%. Kedua konsentrasi juga mampu meningkatkan kematian imago 6.85% dan 7.15% menekan persentase penetasan lelur (18.09% dan 21.94%) dan emergensi pupa (16.72% dan 20.82%). Di samping itu konsentrasi diatas dapal menekan volume makan larva dan imago, mempengaruhi masa prcreproduktif dan tingkat fckunditi imago seta memperpanjang siklus hidup.
Kata kunci: Uncaria gambir Roxb., insektisida botanis, ekstrak daun, Aspidomorpha miliaris, F., aspek biologis

 

ABSTRACT

Biology of Aspidomorpha miliaris F. at several concen¬ trations ofgambier leavesextract

Aspidomorpha Miliaris F. (Coleoptera Chrysomelidae) is an impotant pest in Ipomoeaceae, convolvulaceae and cucurbitaceae plants. Their population need to be controlled by using botanical insecticide, consideing thai the product from these plants usually be oiented to food. Gambier (Uncaria gambier.Roxb), is a potential source for botanical pesticide, because the leaves contain chemical compounds in the form of catechin, lannin catecu (tannat), querchitin and some other compounds. In connection with that, the research on biologycal aspects of A. millions at some concentration of gambier leaf extract was done in KP. Laing Solok from July 2001 lo January 2002. The research used a completely randomized design with 7 treatments and 4 replications. The concentration of gambir leaf extracts were 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000. 5000, 7500 ppm. 0 ppm as control The paiiiineleis oliseivcd were laivac motality, pupae and Imago, egg exlotion and pupae emergency, imago fecundity, the decrease of eating volume and life cycles. The research result showed that gambier leaf extract had good inseciicidallity and was able to influence the biology aspect A. miliaris insect. At the concentration of 5000 ppm and 7500 ppm this extract caused mortality to the larva instar III, IV, V, VI as much as 65.20% 62.00%, 55.20% 46.80% and 79.40%, 74.20%, 67.80%, 57.00%. Both the concentraions also were able (o increase (he imago motality 6.85% and 7.15%, pressed down the egg exlosion percentage and pupae emergency 18.09% and 21.94% and 16.72% and 20.82%. Besides these concentrations above could press down larvae and imago eating volume, influences the prareproductive period and the imago fecundity level and life cycles.

Key words: Uncaria gambir Roxb., botanical insecticide, leaf extract, Aspidomorpha miliaris F., biological aspect


Keywords


Uncaria gambir Roxb.;botanical insecticide;leaf extract;Aspidomorpha miliaris F.;biological aspect

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v10n2.2004.51-58

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