PENGARUH KOLKHISIN TERHADAP PENAMPILAN LADA P p er nigrum L.) MUTAN DAN ANALISIS PLOIDI

NATALINI NOVA KRISTINA, SITTI FATIMAH SYAHID

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Keragaman genetik plasma nutfah lada (Piper nigrum) di Indonesia
rendah  sehingga  perlu  dilakukan  peningkatan  keragaman.  Penelitian
dilakukan di Rumah Kaca Balittro Bogor mulai Januari 2012 sampai Juni
2013. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk meningkatkan keragaman genetik
lada varietas Petaling 1 menggunakan mutagen kimia kolkhisin. Biji lada
direndam dalam larutan kolkhisin konsentrasi 0; 0,01; 0,03; dan 0,05%
selama 4 jam dan disemai pada bak pasir. Masing-masing perlakuan
diulang 3 kali  dan  setiap ulangan  terdiri atas 300 biji.  Pengamatan
dilakukan  terhadap  persentase  perkecambahan  dan  fenotipe  tanaman, persentase tumbuh, tinggi tanaman, serta jumlah ruas dan daun pada umur dua bulan. Selanjutnya, sebanyak 20 individu dari total benih yang tumbuh dipilih berdasarkan rata rata penggabungan dari tanaman terpendek dan tertinggi. Individu terpilih diamati tinggi tanaman serta jumlah ruas dan daun pada umur empat bulan. Untuk melihat ragam genetik dilakukan analisis kandungan DNA dengan flowcytometry. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan kolkhisin 0,01 dan 0,05% menghasilkan persentase perkecambahan benih di persemaian lebih tinggi. Pada lada mutan  vegetatif generasi  ke-0,  perubahan  morfologi  terindikasi  pada konsentrasi 0,03%.  Pada  generasi  mutan hasil  perbanyakan/turunan vegetatif pertama  perubahan  morfologi  pada  tanaman terjadi  pada perlakuan 0,05%. Namun, tidak ada perbedaan yang nyata pada tingkat ploidi lada pada semua perlakuan termasuk kontrol.

Kata kunci:  Piper nigrum L., ragam genetik, mutan, kolkhisin, fenotip

 

ABSTRACT

Effect of Colchicine on the Phenothypic Performance of Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Mutant and Ploidy analysis

Genetic variability of pepper (Piper nigrum) in Indonesia was low,
so it was needed to increase its variability. Research was conducted at the
green house of Indonesian Spices and Medicinal Crops Research Institute,
Bogor from January 2012 to June 2013. The aim of the research was to
increase the genetic variability of pepper (Petaling 1) using chemical
mutagen colchicine. Seeds of pepper were soaked in colchicine solution
with several concentration (0; 0,01; 0,03; and 0,05%) for four hours, and
then germinated on sand media. Every treatment consisted of 300 seeds
and replicated three times. The parameter observed were germination
percentage, plant phenotype, growth percentage, plant hight, number of
node and leaves two months after planting. Further, from total seedling
growth, 20 individual were selected based on average combined from
highest and shortest plant. The selected individual observed their plant
height, number of node and leaves on four months. Flowcytometri analysis
from  the  selected  seedling  was  conducted to  find  interplant  genetic
variabilities. The result showed that application of colchicin 0,01 and
0,05% performed the fast germination on the nursery compared with
control, but no significant differencet on the growth parameters. In the
mutant generation 0, the changes on morphology showed on 0,03% and at the first vegetative generation, the changes were indicated in plants from  0,05%  of  colchicine  treatment.  Flowcytometri  analysis  showed  no  significant differences on ploidi level of all treatments including control.

Keywords:   Piper   nigrum,   genetic   variability,   mutant,  cholchicin, phenotype


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v21n3.2015.125-130

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