EFEKTIVITAS NEMATODA ENTOMOPATOGEN Steinernema sp. PADA HAMA UTAMA BEBERAPA TANAMAN PERKEBUNAN DAN HORTIKULTURA

I G.A.A. INDRAYANI, A. A. AGRA GOTHAMA

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Nematoda  entomopatogen  Steinernema  sp.  telah  banyak
dimanfaatkan sebagai agens hayati untuk mengendalikan serangga hama di
luar negeri, namun di Indonesia masih terbatas. Tujuan penelitian adalah
mengevaluasi efektivitas 3 strain Steinernema sp. lokal terhadap beberapa
hama utama tanaman perkebunan dan hortikultura. Penelitian ini dilakukan
di Laboratorium Entomologi dan Kebun Percobaan, Balai Penelitian
Tanaman Tembakau dan Serat Malang, Jawa Timur, mulai April 2001
sampai Mei 2002. Tiga strain nematoda lokal, yaitu BT02, ML07, dan
AB05 diuji masing-masing pada konsentrasi 50; 100; 200; 400; dan 800
Juvenil infektif (JI)/ml dan satu kontrol (tanpa JI). Sembilan spesies
serangga hama yang diuji yaitu Helicoverpa armigera, dan Pectinophora
gossypiella (hama kapas), H. assulta dan Myzus persicae (tembakau),
Plutella xylostella, dan Crocidolomia binotalis (kubis), Spodoptera exigua
(bawang merah), Liriomyza sp. dan S. litura (bunga krisan). Setiap spesies
serangga mewakili satu unit pengujian. Setiap perlakuan dalam unit
disusun dalam rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan empat ulangan.
Aplikasi perlakuan dilakukan dengan metode vial, kultur sel, dan sumuran,
tergantung perilaku serangga uji dan menggunakan spray chamber. Di
laboratorium, parameter yang diamati adalah sublethal (LC 25 ) dan lethal
concentration (LC 50 ), sublethal and lethal time (LT), dan produksi JI. Di
lapang, hanya satu perlakuan tunggal yang digunakan yaitu LC 50 dari
setiap strain nematoda. Sebanyak masing-masing 20 inang serangga
dipajankan daun atau bagian tanaman yang telah disemprot dengan
suspensi nematoda di lapang, kemudian serangga uji diamati di
laboratorium hingga mati. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ketiga
strain nematoda menunjukkan efektif membunuh C. binotalis (BT02), P.
xylostella, M. persicae (ML07), dan P. gossypiella (AB05), tetapi kurang
efektif terhadap H. armigera (AB05), S. exigua dan S. litura (ML07), dan
Liriomyza sp. (BT02). Waktu efektif yang diperlukan nematoda untuk
membunuh inang (Lethal Time) pada ketiga strain berkisar antara 1-4 hari.
Selain efektif membunuh stadia larva, Steinernema sp. juga efektif
terhadap prepupa dan pupa.
Kata kunci : Tanaman  perkebunan,  hortikultura,  Steinernema  sp.,
Helicoverpa armigera, Pectinophora gossypiella, H.
assulta, Myzus persicae, Plutella xylostella, Crocidolomia
binotalis, Spodoptera exigua, S. litura, Liriomyza sp., juvenil
infektif, mortalitas


ABSTRACT
Effectiveness of entomopathogenic nematode Steiner-
nema sp. against major insect pests of plantation and
horticulture
Entomopathogenic nematode of family Steinernematidae is a
prospective agent for biological control of insect pests. It has been known
that many species of insects can be infected by nematode and sometimes
showed different levels of infection. Laboratory and field study on the
effectiveness of Steinernema sp. against major insect pests of plantation
and horticulture was carried out in Laboratory of Entomology and
Experimental Station of Indonesian Tobacco and Fiber Crops Research
Institute (IToFCRI), Malang, East Java. The objective was to find out the
effectiveness of three local strains of Steinernema sp. to any different
major of insect pests of plantation and horticulture. Three local strains of
nematode tested as BT02, ML07, and AB05 which each consist of five
level concentrations of IJ, viz. 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 IJ/ml and one
untreated with IJ as control were tested against nine species of insect, viz.
H. armigera, P. gossypiella (cotton), H. assulta and M. persicae (tobacco),
P. xylostella and C. binotalis (cabbage), S. exigua (red onion), Liriomyza
sp. and S. litura (chrysanthemum). Each species of insect was tested as
one unit of test and treated with the same level of concentration. Each
treatment in every unit of test was arranged in randomized complete
design with four replications. Application method of treatment used were
vial, cell culture plate, and well, depends on insect behaviour. Nematode
suspension was applied by using spray chamber. Parameters observed
were sublethal and lethal concentration, sublethal and lethal time and IJ
production. In field study, only one single treatment LC 50 was used to
observe the insect mortality. In this study, twenty of insect hosts were fed
on treated-sample leaves collected from the field and observed till death.
The result showed that all strains of Steinernema sp. were more
pathogenic and effective against C. binotallis (BT02), P. xylostella and M.
persicae (ML07), and P. gossypiella (AB05), but less pathogenic against
H. armigera (AB05), S. exigua and S. litura (ML07), and Liriomyza sp.
(BT02). Time needed (LT) to kill the insect host was ranged from one to
four days. Strains of nematode tested were not only effective against larvae
but also effective to kill prepupae and pupae of insect host.
Key words : Estate crops, horticulture, Steinernema sp., H. armigera, P.
gossypiella, H. assulta, M. persicae, P. xylostella, C.
binotalis, S. exigua, Liriomyza sp, S. litura, infective
juvenile, mortality


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v11n2.2005.60-66

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