PENULARAN PENYAKIT KERDIL PADA TANAMAN LADA OLEH TIGA JENIS SERANGGA VEKTOR

RODIAH BALFAS, SAMSUDIN SAMSUDIN, SUKAMTO SUKAMTO, IRWAN LAKANI

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Penyakit kerdil merupakan salah satu penyakit penting pada
tanaman lada (Piper nigrum L.), yang disebabkan oleh dua jenis virus,
yaitu Piper Yellow Mottle Virus (PYMV) yang ditularkan oleh kutu putih
(Planococcus minor dan Ferrisia virgata); dan Cucumo Mosaic Virus
(CMV) yang pernah dilaporkan ditularkan oleh Aphis gossypii. Penelitian
tentang penyakit ini telah dilakukan di laboratorium dan rumah kaca untuk
mengetahui kemampuan serangga vektor P. minor, F. virgata dan A.
gossypii dalam menularkan penyakit. Serangga tersebut diberi makan
selama 24 jam pada tanaman lada yang terserang penyakit kerdil,
kemudian serangga dipindahkan ke bibit lada sehat selama 24 (A. gossypii)
dan 48 jam (P. minor dan F. virgata). Pada setiap jenis serangga diuji 1, 3,
7 dan 10 ekor per tanaman. Dengan cara yang sama dilakukan pula
pengujian lanjutan penularan dengan A. gossypii (sebanyak 10 ekor
serangga per tanaman) dengan menggunakan tiga sumber tanaman sakit
yang berbeda (tanaman sakit asal Bangka, asal Sukabumi dan Bogor).
Selain itu dilakukan penularan secara mekanik dengan menggunakan
ketiga sumber inokulum. Tanaman yang telah diperlakukan diinkubasikan
di rumah kaca. Deteksi virus dilakukan dengan ELISA dengan
menggunakan antiserum dari Agdia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa
P. minor dan F. virgata dapat menularkan penyakit kerdil ke tanaman lada
hingga 100%, sedangkan penularan dengan A. gossypii tidak menunjukkan
gejala, tetapi pada pengujian lanjutan dengan A. gossypii memperlihatkan
beberapa tanaman bergejala. Dari penelitian ini terungkap kutu putih
merupakan serangga vektor PYMV yang sangat efisien, sedangkan A.
gossypii dapat berperan sebagai vektor CMV dengan kemampuan
penularan masih terbatas.
Kata kunci : Piper nigrum L., penyakit kerdil, Ferrisia virgata,
Planococcus minor, Aphis gossypii, CMV dan PYMV,
penularan


ABSTRACT
Transmission of stunted growth disease on black pepper
by three insect vectors
Stunted growth disease is one of the most important diseases on
black pepper caused by Piper Yellow Mottle Virus (PYMV) transmitted by
Mealybugs (Planococcus minor and Ferrisia virgata) and Cucumo Mosaic
Virus (CMV) transmitted by Aphis gossypii. These experiments were
conducted at laboratory and green house to examine the capability of the
insects in transmitting the disease. The insects were fed on black pepper
plant for 24 hours, then transferred to healthy black pepper seedlings for
24 hours (A. gossypii) and 48 hours (P. minor and F. virgata). Each plant
was treated with 1, 3, 7 and 10 insects. Other disease transmission test with
A. gossypii was carried out using the similar method, but each plant was
treated with 10 insects and used three source plants (disease plant from
Bangka,  Sukamulya/Sukabumi  and  Bogor).  Disease  mechanical
transmission was also carried out to black pepper plant using the three
sources of disease plant treated plants were incubated in the glass house.
ELISA was used for disease confirmation with antiserum from Agdia.
The results showed that high transmission rate (up to 100%) were obtained
in transmission with P. minor and F. virgata . No disease symptoms were
shown in black pepper seedlings treated with A. gossypii. In the other
transmission test, however, some plants showed symptoms. The similar
symptoms were also seen on black pepper plants which were mechanically
inoculated. The ELISA showed that the plants were positive for CMV.
These experiments suggested that P. minor and F. virgata are very
efficient vectors for PYMV, Whereas A. gossypii was confirmed as vector
of CMV of black pepper with limited ability in transmitting the disease.
Key words : Black pepper, stunted growth disease, Ferrisia virgata,
Planococcus minor, Aphis gossypii, CMV, PYMV,
transmissio


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v13n4.2007.%25p

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