KAJIAN KELAYAKAN USAHATANI POLA TANAM SAMBILOTO DENGAN JAGUNG

EKWASITA RINI PRIBADI

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Sambiloto (Andrografis paniculata Nees) secara alami hidup subur
di antara tegakan hutan. Hal ini megindikasikan bahwa tanaman ini toleran
terhadap naungan. Kajian pola tanam jagung dan sambiloto diharapkan
mendorong efisiensi produksi dan meningkatkan daya saing. Percobaan
dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Cimanggu Bogor pada tanah Latosol,
ketinggian 240 m dpl, tipe iklim A. Penanaman pada bulan Nopember
2003 dan panen mulai bulan Maret 2004 selama 5 kali panen dengan
selang setiap 2 bulan. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok
(RAK) 6 kali ulangan dengan 4 perlakuan, yaitu : (1) monokultur
sambiloto, (2) sambiloto + jagung jarak tanam 150 cm x 20 cm, (3)
sambiloto + jagung jarak tanam 120 cm x 20 cm, (4) sambiloto + jagung
jarak tanam 90 cm x 20 cm. Bibit sambiloto disemaikan selama 2 bulan
dan ditanam dengan jarak tanam 30 cm x 40 cm, dipupuk dengan 10 ton
pupuk kandang, 150 kg urea, 150 kg SP-36, dan 150 kg KCl per ha.
Pupuk kandang, SP-36, dan KCl seluruhnya diberikan pada saat tanam.
Urea diberikan masing-masing 1/3 bagian pada umur 0, 1, dan 2 BST
(Bulan Sesudah Tanam). Untuk setiap ha tanaman jagung dipupuk dengan
5 ton pupuk kandang, 300 kg SP-36, dan 200 kg KCl yang diberikan pada
saat tanam, dan 300 kg urea diberikan masing-masing 1/2 bagian pada
umur 0, dan 1 BST. Benih jagung (Hibrida lokal R-01) ditanam 2 butir per
lubang tanam, ditanam 2 kali selama musim tanam yaitu pertama 2 minggu
sebelum penanaman sambiloto, dan penanaman kedua 75 hari setelah
penanam jagung yang pertama. Data input-output usahatani dianalis secara
deskriptif dilanjutkan dengan analisis B/C rasio dan sensitivitas. Hasil
penelitian menunjukkan mutu simplisia semua pola tanam memenuhi
standard Materia Medika Indonesia. Produktivitas sambiloto per m 2 makin
menurun dengan kerapatan pola tanam; pada pola monokultur diperoleh
hasil 1,1 kg/m 2 sedangkan pada pola tanam dengan jagung jarak tanam 90
cm x 20 cm menghasilkan 0,5 kg/m 2 terna basah. Produktivitas jagung per
m 2  meningkat dengan makin rapatnya pola tanam yaitu mencapai 13,3
tongkol pada jagung jarak tanam 150 cm x 20 cm, dan 22,2 tongkol pada
jarak tanam jagung 90 cm x 20 cm. Biaya produksi sambiloto sebagian
besar untuk bibit (Rp. 300/tanaman); biaya bibit tertinggi pada pola tanam
monokultur yaitu 66,5% dari total biaya usahatani dan terendah pada pola
tanam dengan jagung jarak tanam 90 cm x 20 cm yaitu 36%. Untuk
menekan biaya usahatani disarankan petani melakukan penyemaian benih
sendiri. Pola tanam sambiloto dengan jagung jarak tanam 90 cm x 20 cm,
paling layak secara finansial dengan pendapatan bersih mencapai
Rp1.188.360 dan B/C rasio 1,45 per 1.000 m2 lahan dan memberikan
sumbangan lebih dari 20% terhadap pendapatan petani sebagai manager
usahatani, mempunyai daya adaptasi yang cukup fleksibel terhadap
perubahan biaya produksi dan harga produk, serta memberikan tambahan
pendapatan bersih (keuntungan sebesar) Rp.51.675/1.000 m 2 lahan
dibandingkan pola monokultur.
Kata kunci : Sambiloto, Andrografis paniculata Nees, jagung, polatanam,
usahatani, produksi, Jawa Barat
ABSTRACT
Feasibility study of king bitter and corn cropping pattern
King bitter (Andrografis paniculata Nees) is naturally grown wildly
under forest trees. This indicates that the plant is shade tolerant. The
cropping pattern of the plant with corn was expected to improve its
production efficiency and compatibility. The experiment was conducted in
the Cimanggu Experimental Garden Bogor, Latosol soil type, elevation
240 m above sea level, climate type A of Schmidt and Fergusson. Planting
was done November 2003. The experiment was designed in a randomized
block with 6 replications. Treatments were (1) monoculture of king bitter
cropping pattern, (2) king bitter and corn (in a plant spacing 150 cm x 20
cm) cropping pattern, (3) king bitter and corn (in a plant spacing 120 cm x
20 cm) cropping pattern, (4) king bitter and corn (in a plant spacing 90 cm
x 20 cm) cropping pattern. King bitter was planted at 30 cm x 40 cm
spacing, fertilized with 10 tons manure + 150 kg SP-36 + 150 kg KCl and
150 kg urea fertilizer was applied one of third dosage in 0, 1, and 2 months
after planting. Corn was grown twice during the experiment; first was
planted 2 weeks prior to planting of the king bitter, and second was 75
days after the first planting. Corn was fertilized with 5 tons manure + 300
kg SP36 + 200 kg KCl per ha, and 300 kg urea fertilizer was applied half
dosage in 0, and 1 months after planting. First harvest of the king bitter
was done in March 2004, followed with 5 harvests every 2 months.
Farming efficiency was analyzed using descriptive analysis, B/C ratio and
sensitivity analysis. The results showed that quality of dry raw material of
king bitter matched with MMI standard. Productivity of king bitter
decreased by the increasing population of corn in cropping pattern, in
monoculture bitter king productivity was 1.1 kg/m 2 decreased to 0.5 kg/m 2
in cropping pattern king bitter and corn (in a plant spacing 90 cm x 20 cm).
In opposite, the productivity of corn increased by the increasing
population of corn in cropping pattern, that were 13.3 cobs/m 2 in cropping
pattern king bitter and corn (in a plant spacing 150 cm x 20 cm) increased
to 22.2 cobs /m 2  in cropping pattern king bitter and corn (in a plant spacing
90 cm x 20 cm). Most of king bitter production cost (Rp. 300/polybag),is
for seedlings. In monoculture of king bitter, seedling cost of king bitter
was 66,5% of production cost, and in cropping pattern king bitter and corn
(in a plant spacing 90 cm x 20 cm) the seedling cost was 36% of
production cost. To reduce production cost, farmers suggested to produce
the seedlings by themselves. The study suggested that the best cropping
pattern was king bitter planted with corn at 90 cm x 20 cm planting space.
This cropping pattern financially acceptable as it raised income as much as
Rp.1,188,360, B/C ratio 1,45 per 1.000 m2 and gave more then 20% of
management income which was more adaptable to fluctuation production
cost and price of product, and gave Rp. 51,675/1.000 m 2  net benefit
compared to monoculture of king bitter
Key words: Sambiloto, Andrografis paniculata Nees, corn, cropping
pattern, farming, production, West Java

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v13n3.2007.98-105

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