PENGARUH PERBANDINGAN AIR KELAPA DAN PENAMBAHAN DAGING KELAPA MUDA SERTA LAMA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP SERBUK MINUMAN KELAPA

RINDENGAN BARLINA, STEIVIE KAROUW, RONALD HUTAPEA, JUNIATI TOWAHA

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Air kelapa dan daging kelapa muda memiliki rasa dan aroma khas,
namun kelezatannya tidak bisa dinikmati setiap saat oleh setiap orang,
karena umur simpan kelapa muda terbatas dan sulitnya distribusi. Salah
satu cara yang dapat dilakukan untuk memperpanjang masa simpan dan
mempermudah distribusi adalah melalui proses pengeringan, misalnya
dengan spray drier. Bahan pangan yang dikeringkan dengan spray drier
harus berupa suspensi dan hasil akhir bentuk serbuk. Penelitian dilakukan
dengan mengeringkan campuran air kelapa dan daging buah kelapa muda
dengan spray drier. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui pengaruh
perbandingan antara air kelapa dan daging buah kelapa muda terhadap
mutu serbuk minuman kelapa selama penyimpanan. Penelitian disusun
secara faktorial dalam rancangan acak lengkap. Faktor A, kematangan air
kelapa : (A1) tua dan (A2) muda. Faktor B, penambahan daging kelapa
muda : (B1) 15%, (B2) 20% dan (B3) 25%. Faktor C, lama penyimpanan:
(C1) 0 bulan, (C2) 1 bulan, dan (C3) 2 bulan., (C4) 3 bulan dan (C5) 4
bulan. Ulangan 2 kali. Pengamatan terdiri dari : kalium, serat pangan,
warna, aroma dan rasa, total mikroba, pH, total padatan, total asam dan
kadar air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan total padatan Serbuk Minuman
Kelapa (SMK) berkisar 7,59-9,50%, pH 4,94-5,35 dan total asam 25,85-
43,90. Serat pangan 4,70-5,54%, kalium tertinggi pada air kelapa tua
dengan penambahan daging kelapa muda 20%, yaitu 1.328,58 mg/100 g.
Sedangkan kadar air 5,15- 7,84%. Warna 3,617-3,719 (biasa sampai suka);
aroma 3,000 – 3,960 (biasa sampai suka), dan rasa manis 2,500-3,640
(suka). Total mikroba SMK 3,72- 4,43 log CFU/g. Kematangan air kelapa
berpengaruh terhadap kadar serat pangan. Penambahan daging kelapa
muda berpengaruh terhadap kadar serat pangan dan warna. Lama
penyimpanan berpengaruh terhadap total padatan. Interaksi kematangan air
kelapa, penambahan daging kelapa muda dan lama penyimpanan ber-
pengaruh terhadap pH, total asam, aroma, rasa dan total mikroba.
Berdasarkan skor rasa, kadar air, kalium, serat pangan dan total mikroba,
maka SMK yang memiliki mutu baik dan berpotensi dikembangkan adalah
formula air kelapa tua dengan penambahan 20% daging kelapa muda.
Kata kunci : Kelapa, Cocos nucifera, pengolahan, serbuk minuman,
Sulawesi Utara
ABSTRACT
Effect of coconut water and young coconut kernel ratio
and storage duration to the quality of coconut water
concentrate
Coconut water and young coconut kernel have unique flavor and
odour. Since these products can not be kept longer and distribution
problem, so both of them are not available everywhere and anytime.
Drying method with spray dryer equipment is a method to extend the
product life product. Generally, spray dryer is used to make some food
products in powder form deriving from suspension. Raw materials used in
this experiment were coconut water from both of young and mature nut
and young coconut kernel. The mixture was dried with spray dryer. The
objective of this research was to find out the effect of coconut water and
young coconut kernel ratio to the quality of coconut water concentrate
during storage. The experiment was arranged in factorial using completely
randomized design with 2 replications. Factor A was maturity of coconut
water consist of (A1) young coconut water and (A2) mature coconut
water. Factor B was ratio of young coconut kernel and coconut water :
(B1) 15%, (B2) 20%, (B3) 25%. Factor C was : storage duration consist
of (C1) 0 month, (B2) 1 month, (B3) 2 months, (B4) 3 months and (B5) 4
months. The variables were observed as follow : kalium content, fiber
content, colour, flavor, odour, total plate count, acidity, total soluble solid,
total acid and water content. The results showed that coconut water
concentrate had 7.59-9.50% of total soluble solid, acidity (pH) 4.94-5.35
and total acid 25.85-43.90. By using 20% young coconut kernel in mature
coconut water obtained product with fiber content about 4.70-5.54% and
highest potassium content around 1,328.58 mg/100g. Score of organoleptic
test as follow : colur is 3.617-3.719 (neither like nor dislike), odour is
3.00-3.96 (neither like nor dislike to like) and flavor is sweet about 2.50-
3.96 (like). Total plate count of coconut water concentrate is about 3.72-
4.43 log CFU/g. Maturity of coconut water affected fiber content. Adding
young coconut kernel affected total soluble solid. Whereas interaction of
coconut water maturity, adding coconut kernel and storage duration
affected some variables like pH, total acid, odour, flavor and total plate
count. Based on the results of flavour, moisture content, potassium
content, fiber content and total plate count showed coconut water
concentrate had good quality. So it is potential to be developed. The best
formula is FORMULA E which was derived from mature coconut water
with 20% young coconut kernel.
Key words: Coconut, Cocos nucifera, processing, concentrate drink,
North Sulawes

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v13n2.2007.%25p

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