PENGARUH SABUT KELAPA TERHADAP KUALITAS NIRA AREN DAN PALM WINE

RINDENGAN BARLINA, STEIVIE KAROUW, PATRIK PASANG

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Nira aren merupakan bahan utama untuk pembuatan gula merah dan
minuman tradisional beralkohol, seperti palm wine dan cap tikus di
Sulawesi Utara. Kualitas produk yang dihasilkan sangat tergantung pada
mutu nira aren sebelum diproses (difermentasi). Penelitian ini bertujuan
untuk mengetahui pengaruh sabut kelapa sebagai bahan pengawet mutu
nira aren dan pengaruhnya terhadap mutu palm wine yang dihasilkan.
Penelitian dilakukan dari bulan Januari sampai Desember 2002 di
Laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Kelapa dan Palma Lain (Balitka)
Manado. Nira aren diperoleh dari kebun petani di Tatengesan Kabupaten
Minahasa. Penelitian ini terdiri atas 2 tahap. Penelitian Tahap I adalah
pengaruh sabut kelapa terhadap mutu nira aren. Perlakuan disusun secara
faktorial dalam rancangan acak lengkap dengan dua ulangan. Faktor
pertama adalah berat sabut/penampung (50 g, 100 g dan 150 g). Faktor
kedua adalah lama pengamatan setelah sadap ( 1, 2, 3 dan 4 jam). Peubah
yang diamati adalah pH, gula total dan warna. Penelitian Tahap II adalah
pengolahan nira aren untuk palm wine. Perlakuan disusun secara faktorial
dalam rancangan acak lengkap dengan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama yaitu
jenis mikroba untuk starter, yaitu ragi roti (Saccharomyces cerevisiae),
kultur murni S. cerevisiae dan S. ellipsoides. Faktor kedua adalah lama
penuaan (aging), terdiri atas 1 bulan, 2 bulan dan 3 bulan. Peubah yang
diamati yaitu total gula, pH, kadar alkohol, total mikroba, total asam, asam
volatil, warna, bau dan rasa. Hasil penelitian Tahap I menunjukkan bahwa
penggunaan sabut segar sebanyak 50 g dapat mempertahankan mutu nira
sampai 3 jam setelah sadap dengan kualitas nira baik dan keasamannya
netral (pH 6,32), tidak berbeda dari kontrol (nira sebelum didiamkan). Nira
yang dihasilkan dari Tahap I ini langsung digunakan untuk penelitian
Tahap II. Hasil penelitian Tahap II menunjukkan bahwa palm wine yang
difermentasi dengan ragi roti dan S. cerevisiae mempunyai mutu cukup
baik walaupun telah disimpan selama 3 bulan, dengan total gula berkisar
3,33-3,78%, pH 3,94-4,10 dan kadar alkohol 6,88%. Sedangkan palm
wine yang difermentasi dengan S. ellipsoides total gulanya 10,44%, pH
4,3 dan kadar alkohol 1,58%. Selanjutnya nilai total asam dari palm wine
yang diolah dengan ragi roti, S. serevisiae, dan S. ellipsoides, masing-
masing 12,27 meq/100 ml, 10,52 meq/100 ml, dan 9,24 meq/100 ml. Nilai
asam asetat (asam volatil) berkisar antara 0,008 – 0,042%. Warna palm
wine yang diperoleh adalah coklat kemerahan. Uji organoleptik menun-
jukkan bahwa panelis agak menyukai aroma dan rasa dari palm wine yang
difermentasi dengan S. ellipsoides, walaupun kadar alkohol hanya 1,58%.
Secara umum, kualitas palm wine dari nira aren termasuk minuman
beralkohol golongan B karena kadar alkoholnya rendah (<2%) dan asam
volatil < 0,2%.
Kata kunci : Aren, Arenga pinnata, pasca panen, prosesing, nira aren,
sabut kelapa, penyadapan, palm wine, Sulawesi Utara
ABSTRACT
Effect of fresh coconut husk on the quality of Arenga pinnata toddy and
palm wine
Arenga pinnata toddy is the main row material for processing palm
sugar and traditional beverage, like palm wine and cap tikus in North
Sulawesi. The quality of product depends on the quality of A. pinnata
toddy before it is processed (fermented). The aim of this research was to
study the effect of coconut husk to preserve the toddy of A. pinnata and its
effect on the palm wine quality. The research was conducted from January
to December 2002, at the Laboratory of Indonesian Coconut and Palmae
Research Institute (ICOPRI) Manado. Arenga pinnata toddy was obtained
from the farmer at Tatengesan Village in Minahasa Regency. The research
consisted of 2 parts which were done continuously. The first part was the
effect of coconut husk on the quality of Arenga pinnata toddy. The
experiment was arranged factorially using completely randomized design,
with two replications. The first factor was the weight of coconut husk (50
g, 100 g and 150 g). The second factor was the period after tapping (1, 2 ,
3, and 4 hours). The variables observed were pH, total sucrose and the
colour of toddy. The second part was processing palm wine by using the
toddy of Arenga pinnata. The experiment was arranged factorially using a
completely randomized design, with 3 replications. The first factor was
kind of starter/microbial consisted of commercial yeast, pure culture S.
cerevisiae and S. ellipsoides. The second factor was aging period consisted
of 1 month, 2 months and 3 months. The variables observed were total
sucrose, acidity (pH), alcohol content, total plate count, total acid, volatil
acid, colour, flavor and taste. The results on the first part showed that 50g
of fresh coconut husk was suitable and efficient to preserve the quality of
toddy up to 3 hours after tapping. The toddy which were produced that
way could be processed for making palm wine. The results of the second
part showed that the quality of palm wine until 3 months aging period was
good, especially the palm wine using starter from commercial yeast and S.
cerevisiae. The total sucrose and acidity (pH) of the palm wine using
commercial yeast and pure culture S. cerevisiae are total sugar was as
follows 3.33 – 3.78%, pH 3.94– 4.10 and alcohol content was 6.88%. By
using S. ellipsoides the total sucrose 10.44%, pH 4.3, and alcohol content
1.58%. The total acid of the palm wine using commercial yeast, pure
culture S. cerevisiae, and S. ellipsoides: 12.27 meq/100 ml, 10.52
meq/100 ml, 9.24 meq/100 ml. Volatil acid content as acetic acid was
0.008 – 0.042%. The colour of palm wine was brown redness.
Organoleptic test showed that the testers liked the flavor and taste of the
palm wine using S. ellipsoides, better eventhough its alcohol content was
only 1.58%. In general, the quality of palm wine from A. pinnata toddy
was categorized as alcohol beverage group B because its alcohol content
was low (<2%) and volatile acid content was <0.2%.
Key words : Sugar palm, Arenga pinnata toddy, post harvest, processing,
coconut husk, tapping, palm wine, North Sulawes

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v12n4.2006.%25p

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