STABILITAS HASIL LIMA NOMOR HARAPAN KENCUR

OTIH ROSTIANA, WAWAN HARYUDIN, ROSITA SMD SMD

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Tujuan pemuliaan kencur diarahkan untuk meningkatkan produksi
rimpang dan kandungan mutu utama yang sesuai dengan standar yang
ditetapkan oleh Materia Medika Indonesia, dalam upaya meningkatkan
pendapatan usahatani. Hasil seleksi berdasarkan produksi dan mutu
rimpang terhadap aksesi plasma nutfah yang terkumpul, terpilih 5 nomor
dengan rata-rata produksi rimpang > 40 g/rumpun dan kadar minyak atsiri
> 1,5%, yaitu V1, V2, V3, V4 dan V5. Kelima nomor diuji multilokasi di 5
lokasi pada 2 musim tanam (tahun 2002/2003 dan 2003/2004). Kelima
lokasi tersebut adalah: Cileungsi (80 m dpl.) dan Cijeruk (650 m dpl.)
(Bogor), Subang (80 m dpl), Sumedang (550 m dpl) dan Sukamulya (350
m dpl.) (Sukabumi). Pengujian menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok
dengan 6 ulangan, jarak tanam 20 x 20 cm, ukuran petak 4 x 1 m 2 ,
populasi tanaman per petak 100. Dari hasil pengujian diperoleh nomor
yang menghasilkan rata-rata bobot rimpang tertinggi yaitu V4 (53,58
g/rumpun atau setara dengan 10,7 ton/ha), rata-rata kadar minyak atsiri
tertinggi (6,64%) dan beradaptasi secara spesifik pada lingkungan tumbuh
yang sama dengan lokasi penanaman di Cijeruk, Sumedang dan Suka-
mulya. Sedangkan V2 dengan nilai diameter rimpang terbesar (2,089 cm),
stabil di 4 lokasi pengujian, responsif terhadap pemupukan, serta V3
dengan rata-rata produksi rimpang 51,98 g/rumpun atau setara dengan 10,4
ton/ha, beradaptasi secara spesifik pada lingkungan tumbuh yang sama
dengan lokasi penanaman kencur di Cileungsi, Cijeruk dan lokasi asalnya
di Sumedang.
Kata kunci : Kencur, Kaempferia galanga L., varietas unggul, stabilitas
hasil, spesifik lokasi, Jawa Barat
ABSTRACT
Stability of five promissing Galanga lines production
Breeding of Galanga was focused on the improvement of rhizome
yield and quality based on the Indonesian Materia Medica Standard, to
increase farmers’ income. Based on the selection on rhizome yield and
quality, 5 accession numbers were selected as promising lines for their
high rhizome yield (>40 g/tiller) and essential oil contents (> 1.5%), e.g.
V1, V2, V3, V4 and V5. All numbers were subjected to multilocation tests
at 5 locations, e.g. Cileungsi (80 m asl) and Cijeruk (650 m asl) (Bogor),
Subang (80 m asl), Sumedang (550 m asl) and Sukamulya (350 m asl)
(Sukabumi), for 2 planting-seasons (2002/2003 and 2003/2004). Experi-
ments were arranged in a randomized-block design, with 6 replications,
plant spacing 20 cm x 20 cm, plot size of 4 x 1 m2, and population 100
plants/plot. The research results showed that the highest average of
rhizome yield was performed by V4 (53.58 g/tiller, equal to 10.7 t/ha),
with essential oil content 6.64% and specifically adaptable to the same
agro-climate as the environment conditions at Cijeruk (Bogor), Sumedang
and Sukamulya (Sukabumi). Meanwhile, V2 with the highest diameter of
rhizome (2,089 cm), stable at 4 out of 5 locations and responsive to
fertilizer application. On the other hand, V3 with the average of rhizome
yield 51.98 g/tiller, equal to 10.4 t/ha, specifically adaptable to the agro-
climate similar to the environment conditions at Cileungsi, Cijeruk
(Bogor) and its native, Sumedang.
Key words: Kaempferia galanga L., superior variety, yield stability,
specific location, West Java

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v12n4.2006.140-145

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