EVALUASI KERAGAMAN GENETIK PLASMA NUTFAH KELAPA GENJAH DI KEBUN PERCOBAAN MAPANGET BERDASARKAN PENANDA DNA SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats)

JEANETTE KUMAUNANG, ISMAIL MASKROMO, ENGELBERT MANAROINSONG

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Keragaman genetik sangat penting dalam program pemuliaan
kelapa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari keragaman genetik
plasma nutfah kelapa Genjah yang ditanam secara ex situ di kebun koleksi
Mapanget, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Kelapa dan Palma Lain, Manado.
Delapan aksesi kelapa Genjah dianalisis keragamannya berdasarkan
penanda DNA SSRs menggunakan 3 primer atau lokus. Hasil analisis
menunjukkan bahwa 3 primer SSRs yang digunakan semuanya polimorfik
dan menghasilkan 4 - 5 alel per lokus. Kelapa Genjah Salak (GSK)
menunjukkan heterozigous pada ke tiga lokus, sedangkan Genjah Hijau
Jombang (GHJ) pada lokus CNZ 51. Dua pohon sampel dari masing-
masing aksesi yang dianalisis memiliki kemiripan genetik sebesar 100%
kecuali aksesi (GHJ) yang hanya memiliki kemiripan 93 %. Aksesi GSK
yang sangat berbeda dengan aksesi lainnya dengan kemiripan hanya 45%.
Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa aksesi kelapa GSK dan GHJ memiliki
beberapa karakter yang berbeda dan spesifik dibandingkan dengan aksesi
lainnya, sehingga diperlukan seleksi yang ketat sebelum digunakan
sebagai materi pemuliaan
Kata kunci : Kelapa,Cocos nucifera L.,plasma nutfah, keragaman genetik,
kelapa Genjah, penanda DNA SSRs, Sulawesi Utara
ABSTRACT
Genetic diversity evaluation of dwarf coconut germplasm
at Mapanget Experimental Garden based on SSRs
(Simple Sequence Repeats) marker
Genetic diversity is very important in coconut breeding program.
The aim of this research was to study genetic diversity of Dwarf Coconut
that have been planted on Mapanget Experimental Garden, Indonesian
Coconut and Palmae Research Institute Manado. Eight Dwarf accessions
were analyzed their to find out genetic diversity based on SSRs marker
using three primers or locus. The results showed that three primers SSRs
were polymophic and gave 4 -5 allels per locus. Salak Green Dwarf (SGD)
showed heterozygous in three loci, while Jombang Green Dwarf (JGD) in
locus CNZ 51. Two sample plants of each accession had genetic similarity
100% except JGD only had similarity of 93%. SGD was different with
other accessions and only had genetic similarity of 45%. SGD and JGD
had several and specific characters that were different compared to the
other accessions and have to be selected before they are used as breeding
materials.
Key words : Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., germplasm, genetic diversity
dwarf coconut, marker SSRs

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v12n3.2006.116-120

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