KERAGAMAN MORFOLOGI, PERTUMBUHAN, PRODUKSI, MUTU DAN FITOKIMIA KELADI TIKUS (Typonium flagelliforme Lodd.) Blume ASAL VARIASI SOMAKLONAL

SITTI FATIMAH SYAHID

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Keladi tikus (Typonium flagelliforme Lodd.) Blume merupakan
tanaman obat yang bermanfaat dalam mengobati penyakit kanker. Secara
konvensional, tanaman ini diperbanyak vegetatif sehingga keragaman
genetiknya tergolong sempit. Upaya peningkatan ragam genetik keladi
tikus telah dilakukan melalui variasi somaklonal yaitu kultur kalus dan
diperoleh plantlet yang normal, namun belum dievaluasi keragaman
morfologi, komponen pertumbuhan, produksi, mutu dan skrining fitokimia
tanaman. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui keragaman morfologi,
pertumbuhan, produksi, mutu dan fitokimia tanaman hasil kultur kalus
tersebut. Kegiatan dilakukan di rumah kaca Balai Penelitian Tanaman
Obat dan Aromatik mulai November 2005 sampai Januari 2007. Bahan
tanaman yang digunakan adalah benih keladi tikus asal kultur kalus.
Sebagai pembanding digunakan benih keladi tikus asal kultur jaringan dan
konvensional. Bahan tanaman tersebut ditanam di dalam polibag
berukuran 20 cm x 30 cm yang berisi media tumbuh campuran tanah
dengan pupuk kandang sapi (2:1), dan dipelihara di rumah kaca sampai
berumur sembilan bulan. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah acak lengkap
dengan enam belas ulangan. Setiap ulangan terdiri atas satu polibag.
Parameter yang diamati adalah karakter morfologi dan pertumbuhan pada
umur enam bulan sedangkan produksi umbi diamati pada umur sembilan
bulan. Selain itu, juga dilakukan analisis terhadap mutu dan fitokimia dari
umbi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara visual tanaman asal
benih kultur kalus memiliki karakteristik morfologi yaitu bentuk daun,
bentuk batang, warna daun dan batang serta bentuk umbi yang sama
dengan benih asal kultur jaringan maupun benih konvensional. Komponen
pertumbuhan (jumlah anakan) benih asal kultur kalus dari kutur jaringan
lebih sedikit dari benih konvensional. Sedangkan jumlah daun, panjang
dan lebar daun tidak berbeda. Tinggi tanaman asal benih kultur kalus lebih
pendek dari benih kultur jaringan dan konvensional. Produksi umbi hasil
kultur kalus (14,24 g) dan hasil kultur jaringan (15,11g) lebih tinggi dari
umbi konvensional (7,0 g). Analisis mutu (kadar sari larut dalam air) pada
keladi tikus asal benih kultur jaringan lebih tinggi dari benih asal kultur
kalus dan benih konvensional. Senyawa steroid ditemukan pada tanaman
asal benih kultur kalus dan kultur jaringan, namun senyawa flavonoid dan
triterpenoid terdeteksi dalam jumlah tinggi pada tanaman asal benih
konvensional. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa penerapan teknik keragaman
somaklonal pada tanaman keladi tikus hanya meningkatkan variasi mutu
dan fitokimia tetapi tidak pada morfologi tanaman.
Kata kunci : Keladi tikus, Typonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume,
keragaman morfologi, pertumbuhan, produksi, mutu,
fitokimia
ABSTRACT
Morphological variation, growth, production, quality and
fitochemistry of rodent tuber (Typonium flagelliforme
Lodd.) Blume derived from somaclonal variation
Rodent tuber (Typonium flagelliforme Lodd.) Blume is one of
medicinal plant which is used for healing cancer. Conventionally, the plant
was vegetatively propagated, therefore. Its genetic variation is narrow. An
attempt to increase the genetic variation of plant was conducted using
somaclonal variation (calli culture) and resulted the normal planlet in vitro.
But, the plant morphology, growth, production, quality and fitochemistry
variation have not been evaluated yet. The aim of the research were to
obtain the morphological variation, growth, production, quality and
fitochemistry of rodent tuber from calli culture seeds. Experiment was
done at the Indonesian Medicinal and Aromatic Crops Research Institute
Green house from November 2005 to January 2007. The plants material
used were seeds of rodent tuber from calli culture compared with seeds
from in vitro culture. They were planted in the polibag (20 cm x 30 cm)
which is contained soil and cow manure (2:1) and maintained until nine
months. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design
with sixteen replications. The parameters observed were morphological
character and growth component at six months and rhizome production at
nine months. Further more, quality and fitochemical variation and rhizome
were also analyzed. The result showed that visually, morphological
character of those plant observed were same in leaf, stem and rhizome.
Growth component (number of leaves, length and width of leaves) of seeds
from calli culture were same with in vitro and conventional but plant
height was different. Conventional seeds produced the greatest tillers but
rhizome production was lower than seeds from calli and in vitro. Water
soluble extract from in vitro seeds was higher than calli culture and
conventional seeds. Steroid compound was detected in seeds from calli
and in vitro. On the otherhand, flavonoid and triterpenoid were not found.
The experiment showed that application of somaclonal variation on rodent
tuber only increase the quality and fitochemical variations but not on plant
morphology.
Key words : Typonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume, morphological
variation, growth, production, quality, fitochemistry

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v14n3.2008.113-118

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