GALUR-GALUR HARAPAN KAPAS DI LAHAN TADAH HUJAN

SIWI SUMARTINI, ABDURRAKHMAN ABDURRAKHMAN, EMY SULISTYOWATI

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Areal pertanaman kapas di Indonesia tersebar di enam propinsi yaitu
Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Bali, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara
Timur, dan Sulawesi Selatan. Pengembangan kapas 70% berada di lahan
tadah hujan dan 30% di lahan sawah sesudah tanaman padi. Di lahan tadah
hujan biasanya kapas ditanam setelah jagung, kedelai atau kacang hijau
dan selalu mengalami kendala kekurangan air selama pertumbuhannya.
Karena kendala tersebut, produksi kapas berbiji ditingkat petani umumnya
hanya mencapai 200 – 500 kg per hektar. Penelitian uji multilokasi
dilaksanakan di Asembagus dan Wongsorejo (Jawa Timur), Bayan (Nusa
Tenggara Barat), dan Bantaeng serta Bulukumba (Sulawesi Selatan), di
lahan tadah hujan pada tahun 2004 – 2006. Sebanyak 9 galur dan varietas
Kanesia 8 disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok yang diulang 4 kali
(tiga ulangan tidak mendapatkan tambahan pengairan setelah tanaman
berumur 42 hari atau setelah pemupukan kedua), satu ulangan diberi
pengairan optimal sampai panen, yang digunakan untuk menghitung
Indeks Kepekaan Terhadap Kekeringan. Kapas ditanam secara monokultur
pada petak percobaan berukuran 50m 2 dengan jarak tanam 100 cm x 25
cm, satu tanaman per lubang. Pengamatan yang dilakukan adalah : hasil
kapas berbiji pada kondisi keterbatasan air, hasil kapas berbiji pada
kondisi pengairan optimal, indeks kerentanan terhadap kekeringan, skor
kerusakan daun akibat serangan Amrasca biguttula, dan mutu serat. Pada
kondisi tidak mendapatkan tambahan pengairan, rata-rata potensi hasil
galur-galur yang diuji tidak berbeda nyata dengan varietas Kanesia 8 serta
toleran terhadap A biguttula dan mutu seratnya memenuhi syarat untuk
industri tekstil di Indonesia. Galur-galur yang produktivitasnya mencapai
lebih dari 1.500 kg kapas berbiji/ha adalah (135x182)(351x268)9,
(135x182)(351x268)10, dan (135x182)10. Dilihat dari produktivitas, keta-
hanan terhadap A. biguttula, ketahanan terhadap kekeringan dan mutu
serat, terdapat dua galur harapan yang dapat dilepas sebagai varietas baru
yang sesuai untuk dikembangkan di lahan tadah hujan pada kondisi keter-
batasan air yaitu galur {(135x182)(351x268)}9 dan galur (339x448)2.
Keunggulan galur {(135x182)(351x268)}9 adalah lebih toleran terhadap
kondisi dengan ketersediaan air terbatas dibandingkan dengan Kanesia 8,
sedangkan produktivitas, ketahanannya terhadap A biguttula, serta mutu
seratnya tidak berbeda. Keunggulan galur (339x448)2 dibandingkan
dengan Kanesia 8 adalah mutu seratnya lebih tinggi, sedangkan produk-
tivitas serta ketahanannya terhadap keterbatasan air dan A. biguttula tidak
berbeda.
Kata kunci : Kapas, produktivitas, mutu serat, tahan terhadap kekeringan
ABSTRACT
New cotton lines adaptive to rain-fed
Cotton growing area in Indonesia extended in six provinces i.e.
East Java, Middle Java, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara
and South Sulawesi. Cotton area in Indonesia is mostly (70%) in rain-
fed, and the rest is on rice-field after paddy (30%). On rain-fed areas,
cotton is commonly grown after maize, soybean, or greenbean, that it
suffers from drought. This condition has resulted low yield ranging 200 –
500 kg seed cotton per hectare. As a result, farmers income and farmers
interest in cotton cultivation are low . Multilocations trial were conducted
in Asembagus and Wongsorejo (East Java), Bayan (West Nusa Tenggara),
and Bantaeng as well as Bulukumba (South Sulawesi), on rain-fed area in
2004 to 2006. 9 lines of cotton and Kanesia 8 were arranged in randomized
block design with four replications three replications without irrigation 42
days after planting and one replication with optimal irrigation for the
estimation of drought susceptibility index. Monoculture cotton was grown
in plots sized 50 m 2 with 100 cm x 25 cm plant spacing, one plant per
hole. Parameters observed were seed cotton yield on water limited
condition, seed cotton yield on full irrigation, drought susceptibility index,
score of leaf damage caused by Amrasca biguttula, and fibre quality.
Means of productivity level of the cotton lines on water limited condition
were not significantly different to Kanesia 8, all of them were tolerant to
A biguttula with fiber quality was suitable for textile industries in
Indonesia. There were three lines reached productivity more than 1,500
kg/ha i.e. (135x182)(351x268)9, (135x182) (351x268)10, and (135x
182)10. From the trials, there were two promising lines i.e. lines
(135x182) (351x268) 9 and (339x448) 2 which can be released as new
varieties tolerant to water limited condition. Lines (135x182)(351x268) 9
was more tolerant to water limited condition than Kanesia 8, and it was not
significantly different in productivity, tolerancy to A biguttula, and fibre
quality. Lines (339x448)2 was superior on its fiber quality than Kanesia 8
and its productivity as well as its tolerancy to water limited condition and
A biguttula were not significantly different.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v14n3.2008.%25p

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