KARAKTERISTIK FISIOLOGIS ISOLAT Sclerotium sp. ASAL TANAMAN SAMBILOTO

SRI YUNI HARTATI, E. TAUFIK, SUPRIADI SUPRIADI, N. KARYANI

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Sclerotium sp. merupakan jamur patogen baru pada tanaman
sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Ness.) yang dapat mengakibatkan
kematian. Penyebaran jamur ini masih terbatas di KP Cimanggu, Bogor
dan KP Cicurug, Sukabumi, Jawa Barat. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk
mengetahui  pengaruh  beberapa  faktor  lingkungan  seperti  suhu,
kelembaban udara (RH), pH, dan cahaya terhadap pertumbuhan isolat
Sclerotium sp. asal sambiloto pada media PDA serta kisaran inangnya.
Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium dan rumah kaca Balai Penelitian
Tanaman Obat dan Aromatik (Balittro), Tahun 2005. Faktor lingkungan
yang diuji yaitu suhu ruangan (20, 28, 35 dan 40) o C, kelembaban udara
(RH 55, 75, 85, dan 100)%, pH (4, 5, 6, 7, dan 8) dan kondisi cahaya
(terang, gelap, dan terang dan gelap selang 12 jam secara bergantian). Uji
kisaran inang dilakukan terhadap 3 varietas jagung (ketan, pematung, dan
sokong) dan 3 varietas kacang tanah (jerapah, kelinci, dan simpai) serta
tanaman sambiloto sebagai pembanding. Inokulasi dilakukan dengan cara
menempelkan sclerotia jamur di bagian pangkal batang tanaman uji dekat
permukaan tanah. Pengamatan pertumbuhan jamur pada media agar yang
diperlakukan dan pengamatan intensitas serangan penyakit dilakukan
setiap hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa isolat Sclerotium sp. asal
tanaman sambiloto tumbuh baik pada suhu (20-35) 0 C, RH (55-100)%, dan
pada kisaran pH 4-8 serta pada kondisi terang atau gelap secara terus
menerus maupun bergantian selang 12 jam. Hasil uji kisaran inang
menunjukkan bahwa Sclerotium sp. dapat menyebabkan kematian tidak
hanya pada tanaman sambiloto, tetapi juga pada dua varietas kacang tanah
(simpai dan jerapah), sedangkan pada jagung tidak menyebabkan kematian
(tahan). Hasil penelitian mengindikasikan bahwa isolat Sclerotium sp.
yang berasal dari tanaman sambiloto mempunyai kemampuan bertahan
hidup dan berkembang pada kondisi lingkungan yang luas (broad
spectrum). Ketidakmampuan jamur tersebut menginfeksi tanaman jagung
varietas ketan, pematung, dan sokong dapat digunanakan sebagai salah
satu cara pengendalian patogen dengan sistem tumpangsari dan rotasi.
Kata kunci : Sambiloto, Andrographis paniculata Ness, Sclerotium sp.,
karakteristik, fisiologis, Jawa Barat
ABSTRACT
Physiological Characteristics of Sclerotium sp. Isolated
from Sambiloto
Sclerotium sp. is a new destructive fungal patogen on sambiloto
(Andrographis paniculata Ness.). The distribution of the patogen was still
limited in Cicurug, Sukabumi and Cimanggu, Bogor, West Java. The aim
of this experiment was to observe the growth of Sclerotium sp from
sambiloto under different environmental factors such as temperature,
relative humidity, light condition, and pH on PDA medium as well as its
host range. The experiment was conducted in Indonesian Medicinal and
Aromatic Crops Research Institute (IMACRI) in 2005. The environmental
factors tested were temperature (20, 28, 35, and 40) o C; relative humidity
(55, 75, 85, and 100)%; pH (4-8); and light condition (continuosly on or
off and 12 hours on and off alternatively). The pathogenicity of the
Sclerotium sp. was tested against 3 varieties of corn (ketan, pematung, and
sokong) and 3 varieties of peanut (jerapah, kelinci, and simpai) as well as
sambiloto as a comparison. Sclerotia of the fungus were inoculated on the
stem base of the plant tested. Observation of the growth of the fungus
under different environmental factors and disease intensity on inoculated
plants was conducted everyday. The results showed that the growth of
Sclerotium sp. isolate from sambiloto was affected by different
environmental factors. The isolate grew well at (20-35) 0 C, relative
humidity ranged from (55-100)%, pH ranged from 4-8, and light
condition of both continuosly on or off as well as 12 hours on and off
alternativelly. The isolate was pathogenic against sambiloto as well as
against 2 varieties of peanut (simpai and jerapah), however, it was not
pathogenic against all the corn varieties tested. The result indicated that
the isolate of Sclerotium sp. from sambiloto was a broad spectrum fungal
pathogen. The resistency of the corn varieties would be of value for
controlling the disease through mixed cropping or rotation systems.
Key words: Sambiloto, Andrographis paniculata Ness, Sclerotium sp.,
physiological characteristics, West Java

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v14n1.2008.25-29

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