KERAGAMAN GENETIKA VARIAN ABAKA YANG DIINDUKSI DENGAN ETHYLMETHANE SULPHONATE (EMS)

RULLY DYAH PURWATI, SUDJINDRO SUDJINDRO, ENDANG KARTINI, SUDARSONO SUDARSONO

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Mutasi in vitro dengan perlakuan mutagen dapat digunakan untuk
meningkatkan keragaman genetika abaka melalui keragaman somaklonal.
Penelitian yang dilakukan bertujuan untuk: (1) menentukan konsentrasi
optimum EMS untuk induksi keragaman somaklonal dalam kultur kalus
embriogen abaka, (2) meregenerasikan bibit abaka varian dari kalus
embriogen yang diberi perlakuan EMS, dan (3) mengevaluasi tipe dan
frekuensi keragaman karakter kualitatif dan kuantitatif di antara populasi
tanaman mutan abaka yang diperoleh dari regenerasi kalus embriogen
yang diberi perlakuan EMS. Penelitian dilakukan mulai bulan Agustus
2003 sampai Agustus 2006 di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan dan Kebun
Percobaan Karangploso, Malang pada Balai Penelitian Tanaman
Tembakau dan Serat, Malang (Balittas). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan
bahwa 0,6% EMS merupakan konsentrasi optimum karena pada
konsentrasi tersebut diperoleh keragaman somaklonal paling banyak.
Varian yang diperoleh menunjukkan karakter kualitatif dan kuantitatif
abnormal. Tipe varian tersebut umumnya bersifat negatif dan kurang
menguntungkan dibandingkan dengan populasi standar. Tipe dan frekuensi
keragaman kualitatif dan kuantitatif pada klon Tangongon berbeda dengan
klon Sangihe-1, mengindikasikan adanya pengaruh genotipe terhadap
keragaman somaklonal. Varian dari abaka klon Tangongon dengan
produksi serat tertinggi (161,0 g dan 154,0 g/tanaman) diperoleh dari
perlakuan EMS 0,3% (T1 28.1.1 dan T1 11.2.2), sedangkan dari klon
Sangihe-1, hasil serat tertinggi (35,0 g dan 40,0 g/tanaman) diperoleh dari
perlakuan EMS 0,6% (S4 28.1.0 dan S4 56.2.0). Produktivitas tersebut
lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan produksi serat tanaman kontrol klon
Tangongon (193,0 g/tanaman) dan Sangihe-1 (70 g/tanaman).
Kata kunci : Abaka, Musa textilis, keragaman somaklonal, EMS, muta-
genesis, in vitro, hasil, Jawa Timur
ABSTRACT
Genetic Variability of Abaca Variants Induced by
Ethylmethane Sulphonate (EMS)
In vitro mutation with mutagen treatment can be used to increase
the genetic variability of abaca by inducing somaclonal variation. The
objectives of the experiments were to (1) determine optimum concen-
tration of EMS to induce abaca somaclonal variation, (2) produce abaca
lines from EMS treated embryogenic calli and evaluate their performance
in the field, and (3) evaluate type and frequency of qualitative and
quantitative variant characters among regenerated abaca lines. This
experiment was conducted in Tissue Culture Laboratory and Karangploso
Experiment Station of Indonesian Tobacco and Fibre Crops Research
Institute (ItoFCRI) Malang from August 2003 to August 2006. The results
showed that EMS treatment on abaca embryogenic calli induced variation,
and the optimum EMS concentration was 0.6%. The variants exhibited a
number of abnormal qualitative and quantitative characters which were
generally negative characters since they showed lower value as compared
to control population. The presence of different types of qualitative and
quantitative variant characters was genotype dependent. Variants from
abaca clone Tangongon having the highest fibre yield (161.0 g and 154.0
g/plant) were obtained from 0.3% EMS treatment (T1 28.1.1 and T1 11.2.2
variants). While variants from abaca clone Sangihe-1 having the highest
fibre yield (35.0 g and 40.0 g/plant) were obtained from 0.6% EMS
treatment (S4 28.1.0 and S4 56.2.0 variants). The fibre yield of control
clones, Tangongon and Sangihe-1, were 193.0 g and 70 g/plant,
respectively.
Key words: Abaca, Musa textilis, induced mutation, somaclonal
variation, field evaluation, yield, East Java

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v14n1.2008.16-24

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