AKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA EKSTRAK BUAH CABAI JAWA (Piper retrofractum) TERHADAP Helopeltis antonii (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE)

GUSTI INDRIATI, DADANG DADANG, DJOKO PRIJONO

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Helopeltis antonii merupakan salah satu hama pada tanaman kakao,
teh, dan jambu mete yang menyerang pucuk dan buah dengan menusukkan
stiletnya untuk mengisap cairan sehingga menyebabkan kerusakan.
Penelitian bertujuan menguji toksisitas ekstrak buah Piper retrofractum
(cabai jawa) terhadap imago, pengaruh konsentrasi subletal terhadap nimfa
keturunan, persistensi terhadap mortalitas dan oviposisi H. antonii.
Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Fisiologi dan Toksikologi
Serangga, Institut Pertanian Bogor dan Laboratorium Proteksi Tanaman,
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar Sukabumi, mulai Mei
2013 sampai April 2014. Buah mentimun digunakan sebagai inang
pengganti untuk perbanyakan serangga uji H. antonii di laboratorium dan
media pengujian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kematian imago H.
antonii, akibat perlakuan ekstrak P. retrofractum 0,05-0,3%, sudah terjadi
pada 24 jam setelah perlakuan (JSP). Sementara itu, pada 24 dan 48 JSP
terjadi penurunan tingkat kematian H. antonii. Setelah 48 JSP, hanya
terjadi sedikit peningkatan kematian H. antonii. LC 50 dan LC 95 ekstrak P.
retrofractum pada 120 JSP masing-masing 0,20 dan 0,49%. Jumlah nimfa
keturunan yang dihasilkan pada perlakuan subletal ekstrak P. retrofractum
0,203% (LC 50 ) lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan konsentrasi 0,141%
(LC 25 ). Ekstrak P. retrofractum yang dipajankan di bawah sinar matahari
hingga 5 hari masih efektif terhadap imago (mortalitas 80%), tetapi tidak
efektif dalam menghambat peletakan telur H. antonii. Penghambatan
peletakan telur terhadap imago H. antonii pada perlakuan ekstrak P.
retrofractum 0,98% (2 × LC 95 ) yang dipajankan di bawah sinar matahari
selama 0 dan 1 hari, dengan indeks penghambatan oviposisi 22,7 dan
23,8%. Keefektifan ekstrak P. retrofractum perlu diuji di lapangan untuk
menilai kelayakan dalam pengendalian H. antonii.
Kata kunci: insektisida botani, mortalitas, oviposisi, persistensi

ABSTRACT
Helopeltis antonii is cocoa, tea, and cashew nuts important pest that
causes damage by sucking plant sap from shoots and nuts. This study was
conducted to test toxicity of Piper retrofractum fruit extract on adults,
sublethal effect on the production nymphal progeny, and persistence
against mortality and oviposition of H. antonii. This study was conducted
at The Fisiology and Insect Toxicology Laboratory, Plant Protection
Departement, Bogor Agricultural University and The Plant Protection
Laboratory of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute
from Mey 2013 to April 2014. Cucumber was used as a host substitute for
rearing the test insect and as the testing medium. The results show that
adult mortality, due to the P. retrofractum leaf extract treatment 0.05-
0.3%, has occured at 24 hours after treatment (HAT). Meanwhile, H.
antonii mortality has decreased on 24 and 48 HAT. After 48 HAT, only a
slight increased in H. antonii mortality. LC 50 and LC 95 of P. retrofractum
extract at 120 HAT were 0.20 and 0.49%, respectively. The treatment at
sublethal concentrations (LC 25 and LC 50 ) markedly decreased nymphal
progeny number. P. retrofractum extract suspensions at LC 95 and 2 × LC 95
exposed under sunlight for 5 days were still effective against H. antonii
adults (80% mortality), but were not effective in females inhibiting
oviposition. The oviposition inhibiting activity was observed only in the
treatment with P. retrofractum extract at 2 × LC 95  exposed under sunlight
for 0 and 1 day in which the oviposition deterrency indices were 22.7 and
23.8% respectively.
Key words: botanical insecticides, mortality, oviposition, persistence


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v21n1.2015.33-40

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