PENGARUH UMUR PANEN RIMPANG TERHADAP PERUBAHAN FISIOLOGI DAN VIABILITAS BENIH JAHE PUTIH BESAR SELAMA PENYIMPANAN

DEVI RUSMIN, M.R. SUHARTANTO, SATRIYAS ILYAS, DYAH MANOHARA, ENY WIDAJATI

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Salah satu faktor yang menentukan daya simpan benih jahe putih
besar (JPB) adalah mutu. Mutu benih sangat ditentukan oleh tingkat
kemasakan rimpang. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh
umur panen terhadap perubahan fisiologi dan viabilitas benih selama
penyimpanan. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Rumah Kaca dan Laboratorium
Teknologi Benih, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat serta
Laboratorium Pascapanen IPB Bogor, mulai bulan Juli 2012 sampai
dengan Februari 2013. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah acak lengkap
(RAL) dengan lima ulangan. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah tiga tingkat umur
panen benih 7, 8, dan 9 bulan setelah tanam (BST). Pengamatan dilakukan
terhadap perubahan fisiologis (penyusutan bobot, persentase rimpang
bertunas, tunas, kadar air, dan laju respirasi), serta viabilitas rimpang benih
(daya tumbuh, tinggi, dan bobot kering bibit). Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan rimpang benih umur 7 dan 8 BST mempunyai daya simpan
terbaik karena menghasilkan masing-masing total angka penyusutan bobot
lebih rendah (24,65 dan 25,25%) dan tunas lebih pendek (0,30 dan 1,08
cm) dibandingkan dengan umur panen 9 BST (27,13% dan 1,62 cm),
selama 4 bulan disimpan. Masa dormansi rimpang benih JPB mulai pecah
setelah mengalami periode simpan 2 bulan. Pertumbuhannya mulai
seragam setelah 3 bulan simpan. Umur panen jahe 7 dan 8 BST
mempunyai derajat dormansi yang lebih tinggi dibanding 9 BST. Rimpang
benih umur panen 7, 8, dan 9 BST mempunyai daya tumbuh tinggi (>95%)
dan pertumbuhan bibit seragam setelah 3 bulan disimpan.
Kata kunci: Zingiber officinale Rosc., penyimpanan, benih, perubahan
fisiologis, viabilitas

ABSTRACT
One of the factors that determine the storability of seed rhizome of
white big ginger (WBG) is quality. The quality is determined by the
maturity levels of seed rhizome. The aim of the experiment was to observe
the effect of harvesting time on physiological changes and seed viability of
WBG seed rhizomes during the storage. The experiment was conducted at
Green House and Seed Technology Laboratory of Indonesian Spice and
Medicinal Crops Research Institute, Bogor and Postharvest Laboratory,
IPB, from July 2012 to February 2013. The experiment was arranged in a
completely randomized design with five replications. The treatments
tested were three levels of WBG seed rhizome harvesting time: 7, 8, and 9
month after planting (MAP). Variables observed were physiological
changes of seed rhizomes during the storage (weight loss, sprouting
percentage, shoot height, respiration rate, and moisture content) and
viability (growth ability, height, and dry weight of the seedling). The
results showed that seed rhizomes at 7 and 8 had the best storability, since
it was produced each low rate of weight loss (24.65 and 25.25%), and
shoots shorter (0.3 and 1.08 cm) than 9 MAP (27.13% and 1.62 cm), for 4
months in storage. Dormancy of WBG seed rhizomes has been broken
after 2 months in storage. Harvesting at 7 and 8 showed a degree of
dormancy higher than the harvesting age 9 MAP. Harvesting time at 7, 8,
and 9 MAP had high growth ability (> 95%) and uniform seedling growth
after 3 months in storage.
Keywords: Zingiber officinale Rosc., storage, seed, physiological
changes, viability


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v21n1.2015.17-24

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