KERAGAMAN FENOTIPE DAN GENETIK TIGA VARIETAS KELAPA GENJAH KOPYOR ASAL PATI JAWA TENGAH

ISMAIL MASKROMO, ELSJE T. TENDA, MEITY A. TULALO, HENGKY NOVARIANTO, DEWI SUKMA, SUKENDAH SUKENDAH, SUDARSONO SUDARSONO

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Kelapa Genjah kopyor asal Pati, Jawa Tengah merupakan
kekayaaan hayati asli Indonesia dengan nilai ekonomi tinggi. Informasi
keragaman genetik kelapa kopyor masih terbatas. Data keragaman
morfologi dan genetik diperlukan dalam program pemuliaan kelapa
kopyor. Penelitian ini mempelajari keragaman tiga varietas kelapa genjah
kopyor asal Pati yang telah dilepas berdasarkan karakter morfologi,
kuantitas endosperma, dan keragaman alel marka SSR. Penelitian
dilakukan di Pati dan di Laboratorium Plant Molecular Biology,
Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura, IPB. Evaluasi dilakukan terhadap
tiga populasi kelapa Genjah kopyor (hijau, coklat, dan kuning) dengan 30
tanaman sampel untuk setiap populasi. Rataan data morfologi digunakan
untuk menyusun dendogram. Kuantitas endosperma diamati pada satu
buah kelapa kopyor per tanaman yang dievaluasi. Karakteristik
endosperma dikelompokkan sesuai kategori yang telah ditetapkan. Untuk
setiap populasi, analisis marka dengan lima pasang primer SSR dilakukan
pada 10 tanaman sampel. Data yang didapat digunakan untuk menentukan
keragaman genetik kelapa Genjah kopyor asal Pati. Hasil pengamatan
menunjukkan keragaman morfologis dan alel SSR antar tanaman dalam
varietasnya (keragaman intra-varietas) rendah. Sebaliknya, keragaman
morfologis dan alel SSR antar varietasnya tinggi. Kuantitas endosperma
kelapa Genjah kopyor asal Pati bervariasi antara skor 1–6. Keragaman
genetik yang rendah dalam varietas dan tinggi antar ketiga varietas (coklat,
hijau, dan kuning) memperkuat pelepasan ketiganya sebagai varietas lokal.
Selain itu, keragaman genetik antar tanaman dalam varietas yang rendah
mendukung penggunaan ketiga varietas lokal sebagai tetua dalam program
perakitan varietas kelapa kopyor unggul baru. Tetua yang dipilih dapat
diseleksi intra-varietas berdasarkan persentase buah kopyor per tandan
dan skor kuantitas endosperma yang tinggi.
Kata kunci: Keragaman morfologis, keragaman intra dan antar varietas,
kuantitas endosperma

ABSTRACT
Kopyor dwarf coconuts are mutants from Pati, Central Java having
high economic values. However, morphological and genetic diversities of
this coconut were still limited. Morphological and genetic diversity data
are needed for breeding program. The research objectives were to evaluate
intra and inter-specific diversity based on morphology, endosperm
quantity, and SSR alleles. Field evaluations were conducted in Pati while
laboratory activities were at Plant Molecular Biology Laboratory,
Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, IPB. Three populations of
kopyor dwarf varieties (brown, green, and yellow) were evaluated. Thirty
trees were sampled for each population. The average of morphological
data were used to construct cluster analysis. Endosperm quantity was
scored (0 – 9) based on a single nut sample. Ten palms were analyzed
using five SSR loci for each population and used to determine genetic
diversity of populations. Results of observations indicated intra-variety
morphological and SSR allele variations among kopyor dwarf was low.
However, inter-variety variations were high. The endosperm quantity
scores among kopyor dwarf coconut ranged from 1–6. The low intra-
variety and high inter-variety variations among the three kopyor dwarf
coconut supported their release as different local varieties. Moreover, the
low intra-variety phenotypic and genotypic diversities among kopyor
brown, green, and yellow dwarf coconut support their use as parents for
new and superior kopyor coconut variety development in the future. For
such purpose, however, it is necessary to conduct intra-variety selection to
identify desirable parents based on high kopyor fruit percentage per bunch
and for high kopyor endosperm quantity.
Key words: Morphological diversity, intra and inter variety diversities,
quantity, endosperm


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v21n1.2015.1-8

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