HUBUNGAN ANTARA KERAGAMAN BIOFISIK DAN FISIOLOGIS BENIH DENGAN VIGOR BENIH DAN BIBIT KAKAO HIBRIDA

BAHARUDIN BAHARUDIN

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Penentuan karakteristik biofisik guna menghasilkan benih dan bibit berkualitas. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui keragaman hubungan mutu biofisik dan fisiologis benih terhadap vigor benih dan bibit kakao hibrida. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei sampai November 2010, di Kebun Benih, Puslitkoka, Jember dan Laboratorium Ilmu dan Teknologi Benih IPB serta di rumah kaca
Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Perkebunan Indonesia, Bogor. Penelitian
menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok, lima jenis kakao hibrida dan
empat ukuran benih, dengan empat ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa keragaman karakteristik biofisik benih kakao GC 7, ICS 13 dan 60,
TSH 858 dan UIT 1 pada jumlah dan bobot benih sangat bervariasi. Keragaman hubungan karakteristik biofisik untuk panjang, diameter, tebal dan bobot per 100 benih optimal pada benih kakao ukuran besar GC 7, ICS
60, dan TSH 858, sangat besar ICS 13 dan UIT 1. Ukuran benih berkaitan dengan mutu fisiologis perkecambahan benih, nilai, periode, daya, dan laju
kecambah optimal ukuran benih sedang dan besar pada kakao GC 7, ICS
60, dan TSH 858, ICS 13 dan UIT 1 pada ukuran benih sedang, besar dan
sangat besar. Ukuran benih berhubungan dengan daya hidup benih terbaik
kakao GC 7, ICS 60, dan TSH 858 untuk ukuran sedang dan besar, ICS 13
dan UIT 1 ukuran benih besar dan sangat besar. Pertumbuhan bibit
berkaitan dengan panjang tunas, panjang akar, diameter batang, dan tunas,
rasio bobot kering akar dan tunas terbaik kakao GC 7 dan TSH 858 pada
ukuran sedang dan besar, ICS 60 benih besar serta ICS 13 dan UIT 1
ukuran besar dan sangat besar. Perkembangan hasil total bobot kering
tunas, daun dan bibit, bobot kering akar, total bobot kering bibit, dan rasio
bobot kering akar dan tunas (A:T) optimal pada benih ukuran sedang,
besar dan sangat besar.
Kata kunci: Theobroma cacao, benih hibrida, matriconditioning, seleksi
benih, vigor benih
ABSTRACT
Determination of biophysical and physiological characteristics of
seeds is essential in order to produce quality seeds and seedlings. The
study aims to determine the diversity of biophysical and physiological
relationship quality seed from the seed vigor and hybrid cacao seedlings.
The experiment was conducted in May and November 2010. The study
was conducted at Seed Gardens, Puslitkoka, Jember and Seed Laboratory
Science and Technology IPB and in greenhouse Indonesian Biotechnology
Research for Estate Crops, Bogor. The study used a randomized block design, five and four types of hybrida cocoa seed size, with four replications. The results showed the diversity of biophysical characteristics
of cacao seeds GC 7, ICS 13 and 60, TSH 858 and UIT 1 on number and
weight of seeds. The diversity of the biophysical characteristics of the
relationship to length, diameter, thickness and weight per 100 seeds on the
oftimal size of a large cocoa seeds GC 7, ICS 60, and TSH 858, a very
large ICS 13 and UIT 1. Size physiological seed quality associated with
the germination of seeds, value, period, the power, and the optimal rate of
germination medium and large seed size in cocoa GC 7, ICS 60, and TSH
858, ICS 13 and UIT 1 seed sizes medium, large and very large. Seed size
associated with the best seed vitality of cacao GC 7, ICS 60, and TSH 858
for medium and large size, ICS 13 and UIT 1 large seed size and very
large. Seedling growth related to the length of shoots, root length, stem
diameter, and shoots, root dry weight ratio and best buds of cacao GC 7
and TSH 858 on medium and large size, large seed ICS 60 and ICS 13 and
UIT 1 large and very large size. The development of the dry weight of the
total yield of shoots, leaves and seeds, root dry weight, total dry weight of
the seeds, and the ratio of dry weight of roots and shoots (A:T) on the
optimal size of the seed medium, large and very large.
Key words: Theobroma cacao, hybrid seeds, matriconditioning, seed
selection, seed vigor

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v20n3.2014.158-168

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