ANALISIS DIVERSITAS GENETIK AKSESI KELAPA SAWIT KAMERUN BERDASARKAN MARKA SSR

I MADE TASMA, SEKAR ARUMSARI

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Diversitas genetik aksesi kelapa sawit Indonesia saat ini sangat
rendah. Dalam usaha meningkatkan keragaman genetik telah dilakukan
eksplorasi plasma nutfah di pusat keragaman genetik kelapa sawit di
Kamerun. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui diversitas genetik
dan tingkat polimorfisme berdasarkan marka SSR aksesi-aksesi kelapa
sawit Kamerun. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan 49 aksesi kelapa sawit
Kamerun, Afrika yang ditanam di Kebun Sumber Daya Genetik (SDG)
Sawit Sijunjung, Sumatera Barat. DNA genomik diisolasi dari tiap
individu aksesi menggunakan protokol isolasi DNA untuk tanaman
bergetah. DNA dianalisis menggunakan 20 marka SSR. Dendrogram
kekerabatan dikonstruksi menggunakan metode Unweighted Pair Group
Method Arithmetic (UPGMA) melalui software NTSYS-pc (Numerical
Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System) versi 2.1-pc. Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan nilai polimorfisme information content (PIC) marka SSR
tinggi sebesar 0,80 (berkisar 0,63-0,91). Jumlah alel yang terdeteksi per
marka SSR berkisar antara 4-15 alel per lokus SSR (rata-rata 8,75).
Analisis filogenetik 49 aksesi menghasilkan diversitas genetik 12,5-
54,72% (kemiripan genetik 55,28-87,50%). Pada diversitas genetik
54,72%, aksesi Kamerun terbagi menjadi tujuh kelompok masing-masing
terdiri dari 9, 28, 4, 2, 1, 2, dan 3 aksesi. Aksesi dengan diversitas genetik
tinggi dan berada pada klaster berbeda, potensial digunakan sebagai calon
tetua dalam program pemuliaan kelapa sawit.
Kata kunci: Elaeis guineensis Jacq., diversitas genetik, plasma nutfah,
marka SSR

ABSTRACT
Genetic diversity of the Indonesian oil palm collection is very low.
To improve their genetic variability, exploration from the oil palm center
of origins has been done in Kamerun. The objectives of this study were to
determine genetic and polymorphism level of the SSR markers Cameroon-
originated oil palm accessions. Genetic materials used were 49 Cameroon-
originated oil palm accessions collected at Sijunjung Oil Palm Germplam
Collection Station, West Sumatera. Genomic DNA was isolated using a
protocol for isolating DNA from leaves rich with latex. DNA was analyzed
using 20 SSR markers. A dendogram was constructed using the
Unweighted Pair Group Method Arithmetic (UPGMA) method through the
Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System software
(NTSYS-pc) version 2.1-pc. Results showed that the polimorfisme
information content (PIC) values of the SSR markers used was high, 0.80
(range from 0.63-0.91). The average number of the SSR alleles detected
was also high, 8.75 alleles (range from 4-15 alleles per SSR locus).
Phylogenetic analysis of the 49 oil palm accessions resulted genetic
diversity of 12.5-54.72% (genetic similarity of 55.28-87.50%). At genetic
diversity 54.72%, the 49 accessions were divided into seven clusters, each
consisted of 9, 28, 4, 2, 1, 2, and 3 accesions, respectively. Accessions
with high genetic diversity and located at different clusters may be useful
as parent candidates in the future oil palm breeding programs.
Key words: Elaeis guineensis Jacq., genetic diversity, germplasm, SSR
markers


Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v19n4.2013.194%20-%20202

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c)


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.



P-ISSN: 0853-8212
E-ISSN: 2528-6870

Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan
Jln. Tentara Pelajar No 1, Kampus Penelitian Cimanggu
Bogor 16111 Indonesia
Phone: +62251-8313083
Fax: +62251-8336194
Email: littri_puslitbangbun@yahoo.co.id



View My Stats