KARAKTERISTIK MORFOLOGI, POTENSI PRODUKSI DAN KOMPONEN UTAMA RIMPANG SEMBILAN NOMOR LEMPUYANG WANGI

SRI WAHYUNI, NURLIANI BERMAWIE, NATALINI NOVA KRISTINA

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Lempuyang  merupakan family  Zingiberaceae,  dan  banyak
digunakan oleh masyarakat untuk obat/jamu sebagai peningkat stamina,
antikanker dan obat antiinfeksi. Balittro memiliki koleksi plasma nutfah
lempuyang yang dikumpulkan dari berbagai daerah. Potensi sifat tanaman
perlu dievaluasi untuk mengetahui karakter potensial dan keunggulannya.
Karakterisasi sembilan aksesi lempuyang wangi dilakukan di KP. Cicurug
– Sukabumi Jawa Barat tahun 2009 hingga tahun 2010. Benih ditanam
dengan jarak tanam 60 x 40 cm, jumlah tanaman per plot 20 tanaman dan
diulang tiga kali. Pengamatan dilakukan pada sepuluh tanaman terhadap
sifat morfologi tanaman, pertumbuhan, produksi, dan mutu rimpang. Hasil
pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa morfologi dan pertumbuhan tanaman
lempuyang bervariasi. Pertumbuhan tinggi tanaman, jumlah anakan,
jumlah daun panjang dan lebar daun, serta diameter batang antar aksesi
bervariasi. Produksi rimpang lempuyang wangi umumnya lebih dari 15
ton/ha, rimpang mempunyai banyak akar. Mutu simplisia rimpang adalah
kisaran kadar minyak atsiri 1,34–4,61%, kadar sari larut dalam air 16,22–
23,5%, kadar sari larut etanol 7,9–13,8%, kadar serat 5,47– 8,87% dan
kadar pati 40-50%. Hasil analisis ekstrak rimpang lempuyang dengan GC-
MS menunjukkan bahwa sekitar 50 komponen terdeteksi. Zerumbone
merupakan komponen utama lempuyang dengan nilai sebesar 36–49%.
Komponen utama zerumbone dan acetic acid terdapat di semua aksesi.
Komponen utama lainnya di antaranya adalah alpha humulene, humulene
oxide, beta-eudesmol, beta-selinene, linalool, 12-oxabicyclo, caryophilene
oxide, 3-octadecyne, hexadecanoic acid, dan 3-octyne 5-methyl.
Komposisi komponen utama antar aksesi berbeda senada dengan aroma
wangi yang ditimbulkan pada lempuyang. Sebanyak tujuh nomor aksesi
yang mempunyai keunggulan produksi lebih dari 15 t/ha, mutu minyak
atsiri lebih dari 1% dan zerumbone 40%.
Kata kunci: Zingiber aromaticum, produksi, komponen utama rimpang

ABSTRACT
Wild ginger is one of Zingiberaceae family. Plant use as a medicine
for stamina improvement, anticancer and antiinfection. Balittro had
collected wild ginger from several area and potential characters should be
evaluated. Characterization was conducted at Cicurug experimental garden
– West Java on 2009-2010. Seed rhizome of nine accession was planted
with 60 x 40 cm space, twenty numbers of plant each plot and three
replication. Observation was carried out for morphological characters,
growth, yield, and rhizome quality. Result showed that there were
variations in morphology and growth of wild ginger. Plant height, numbers
of tillers, numbers of leaves, leaves length, leaves width, and stem
diameter among acessions were variate. Rhizome yield was generally more
than 15 ton/ha, rhizome having plenty of roots. Rhizome quality analysis
showed that among accessions have essential oil content range from 1.34-
4.61%, extract soluble water 16.22 – 23.5%, extract soluble ethanol 7.9-
13.88%, fiber content 5.47 – 8.87%, and carbohydrat content 40-50%.
GS-MS of wild ginger rhizome extract revealed totally around 50
constituent was detected. The highest constituent detected is zerumbone
(36-49%). Moreover, acetic acid also detected in all accession with value
range from 4.64 – 14.36%. Other major constituent are alpha humulene,
humulene oxide, beta-eudesmol, beta-selinene, linalool, 12-oxabicyclo,
caryophilene oxide, 3-octadecyne, hexadecanoic acid, and 3-octyne 5-
methyl. The composition of major constituent among collection numbers is
different and reflected the differences of the flavour of the flesh rhizome.
Seven collection numbers are having yield potential more than 15 ton/ha,
essential oil content more than 1% dan zerumbone content 40%.
Key word: Zingiber aromaticum, rhizome yield, rhizome constituent


Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v19n3.2013.99-107

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c)


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.




P-ISSN: 0853-8212
E-ISSN: 2528-6870

Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

(Indonesian Center for Estate Crops Research and Development)

Jln. Tentara Pelajar No 1, Kampus Penelitian Cimanggu

Bogor 16111 Indonesia

Phone: +62251-8313083

Fax: +62251-8336194

Email: littri_puslitbangbun@yahoo.co.id



View My Stats