DETEKSI SECARA SEROLOGI DAN MOLEKULER BEBERAPA JENIS VIRUS YANG BERASOSIASI DENGAN PENYAKIT MOSAIK TANAMAN NILAM (Pogostemon cablin Benth)

MIFTAKHUROHMAH MIFTAKHUROHMAH, GEDE SUASTIKA, TRI ASMIRA DAMAYANTI

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Penyakit mosaik pada tanaman nilam disebabkan oleh beberapa
jenis virus, yaitu Potyvirus, Potexvirus, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV),
dan Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk
mengidentifikasi secara serologi dan molekuler virus-virus yang
berasosiasi dengan gejala mosaik pada nilam di KP. Manoko, KP. Cicurug
dan lahan petani di Cijeruk. Sampel daun nilam baik yang menunjukkan
gejala mosaik atau pun tidak diambil dari setiap lokasi penanaman
masing–masing sebanyak 30 sampel. Kejadian penyakit ditentukan melalui
deteksi serologi dengan Direct-ELISA dan Indirect-ELISA terhadap sampel
menggunakan empat antiserum, yaitu CMV, Cymbidium mosaic virus
(CymMV), Potyvirus, dan BBWV2. Deteksi molekuler dengan RT-PCR
dilakukan untuk mengonfirmasi virus baru yang ditemukan. Hasil
penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gejala infeksi virus yang ditemukan pada
nilam bervariasi, yaitu mosaik lemah, mosaik kuning hijau, mosaik dengan
penebalan, mosaik dengan malformasi daun, dan bintik kuning. Secara
serologi, kejadian virus pada setiap kebun bervariasi. Di KP Manoko,
Potyvirus dan BBWV2 lebih dominan (100%) dibandingkan CymMV. Di
KP Cicurug, kejadian Potyvirus dan CMV terlihat lebih dominan (83,3 dan
80%) dibandingkan BBWV2 dan CymMV, sedangkan di Cijeruk, BBWV2
lebih dominan (90%) dari Potyvirus (50%) dan CMV (13,3%). Hasil RT-
PCR dengan primer degenerate BBWV, diidentifikasi BBWV2 pada
sampel daun nilam dari Manoko, Cicurug, dan Cijeruk, sedangkan dengan
primer general Potexvirus, diidentifikasi CymMV hanya dari sampel daun
nilam dari asal Manoko. Hasil penelitian ini merupakan laporan pertama
tentang BBWV2 dan CymMV pada tanaman nilam di Jawa Barat yang
mengindikasikan bahwa virus merupakan kendala utama pada perbenihan
nilam yang harus segera diatasi.
Kata kunci: BBWV2, CymMV, mosaik, Pogostemon cablin Benth, PCR

ABSTRACT
Mosaic symptoms on patchouli plant are associated with several
viruses, i.e. Potyvirus, Potexvirus, CMV, and BBWV2. The objective of
the study was to detect virus(es) associated with mosaic symptoms on
patchouli at the the patchouli seed nurseries, in Manoko, Cicurug, and
Cijeruk. Thirty leaf samples either showing typical symptomatic mosaic or
asymptomatic were taken from each location. Serological testing by
Direct-ELISA and Indirect-ELISA using four antisera namely CMV,
Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV), Potyvirus, and BBWV2 was carried
out to test the incidence of each virus. Molecular detection by RT-PCR was
performed to confirm the new virus(es). The results showed that symptoms
of virus infection were found vary, i.e. weak mosaic, green yellow mosaic,
mosaic with thickening, mosaic with leaf malformations, and yellow spot.
Based on the serological detection, virus(es) incidence varied at each seed
nurseries. In Manoko, Potyvirus, and BBWV2 were more dominant
(100%) compared with CymMV. In Cicurug, Potyvirus and CMV were
more dominat (83.3 and 80%) compared with BBWV2 and CymMV.
While in Cijeruk, BBWV2 was the most dominant (90%) than Potyvirus
(50%) and CMV(13.3%). Result of RT-PCR with degenerate primers pair
of BBWV was succesfully identified BBWV2 from Manoko, Cicurug, and
Cijeruk samples, whereas by using Potexvirus general primary, CymMV
was identified only from Manoko samples. BBWV2 and CymMV were
first reported to infect patchouli in West Java. The result indicate that
virus(es) are the major constraint on patchouli seed that should be
managed immediately.
Key words: BBWV2, CymMV, mosaic, Pogostemon cablin Benth, PCR


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v19n3.2013.130%20-%20138

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