STABILITAS HASIL DAN MUTU ENAM GENOTIPE HARAPAN JAHE PUTIH KECIL (Zingiber officinale Rosc. var amarum) PADA BEBERAPA AGROEKOLOGI

NURLIANI BERMAWIE, SITTI FATIMAH SYAHID, NUR AJIJAH, SUSI PURWIYANTI, BUDI MARTONO

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Peningkatan produktivitas dan mutu jahe putih kecil memerlukan
bahan tanaman unggul. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui
stabilitas hasil dan mutu enam genotipe jahe putih kecil pada berbagai
kondisi agroekologi. Enam genotipe harapan jahe putih kecil dan dua
genotipe lokal sebagai pembanding diuji selama dua musim tanam di
empat lokasi (Sukabumi, Sumedang, Majalengka, dan Garut) pada tahun
2004 sampai 2006. Rancangan percobaan dilakukan mengikuti rancangan
acak kelompok (RAK) dengan tiga ulangan. Jarak tanam 60 x 40 cm
dengan populasi per plot sebanyak 100 tanaman. Parameter yang diamati
adalah hasil (bobot rimpang per rumpun) dan mutu (kadar minyak atsiri,
fenol total, sari larut air, dan sari larut alkohol). Analisis stabilitas hasil
menggunakan metoda Yau dan Hamblin. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan
genotipe ZIOF-0049 dan ZIOF-0050 menghasilkan rimpang dengan rataan
bobot aktual cukup tinggi serta stabil pada berbagai kondisi agroeokologi.
Kadar minyak atsiri genotipe ZIOF-0049 sedang (2,92%), sedangkan
ZIOF-0050 tinggi (3,28%). Genotipe ZIOF-0046 memiliki kadar minyak
atsiri cukup tinggi (3,91%), dan stabil di seluruh unit pengujian. Selain
kadar minyak atsiri genotipe ZIOF-0046 juga memiliki kadar fenol
(3,04%) dan kadar sari larut air (24,40%) yang cukup tinggi. Genotipe
ZIOF-0008 memiliki kadar minyak atsiri yang tinggi (3,64%) dan stabil
pada berbagai unit pengujian. Empat genotipe ZIOF-0049, ZIOF-0050,
ZIOF-0046, dan ZIOF-0008 menunjukkan karakter stabil pada sifat hasil
dan mutu rimpang sehingga layak untuk direkomendasikan sebagai
genotipe unggul dan beradaptasi luas.
Kata kunci: Zingiber officinale var. amarum, jahe putih kecil, interaksi
genetik dan lingkungan, hasil, mutu

ABSTRACT
The provision of superior genotype having stable yield and
quality is a prerequisite for the productivity and quality improvement of
small white ginger. Research to study stability of yield and quality was
undertaken on six promising genotypes with two control variety by multi
environmental tests in four locations (Sukabumi, Sumedang, Majalengka,
and Garut) for two growing seasons from 2004-2006. The experiment
used a randomized block design with three replicates, 60 cm x 40 cm plant
spacing, 100 plants per plot. Parameters observed were fresh rhizome
yield and quality (essential oil content, total phenolic content, water
soluble extract, and alcohol soluble extract). Stability analysis was
undertaken based on Yau and Hamblin method. Genotype ZIOF-0049 and
ZIOF-0050 produced the high rhizome weight and considered to be
relatively stable at four locations. Essential oils content of ZIOF-0049
were medium (2,92%) and ZIOF-0050 were high (3,28%). Genotypes that
have high content of essential oil (3,91%) and stable in various testing unit
was ZIOF-0046. In addition to the essential oil content, genotypes ZIOF-
0046 also had phenol (3,04%) and water-soluble extract (24,40%) content
were high. Genotype ZIOF-0008 has a high volatile oil content (3,64%)
and stable in various testing unit. Four genotypes ZIOF-0049, ZIOF-0050,
ZIOF-0046 and ZIOF-0008 showed stable in rhizome yield and quality
characters. That were deserves to be recommended as superior genotypes
and wide adaptation.
Key words: Zingiber officinale var. amarum, small white ginger, genetic
and environment interaction, yield, quality


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v19n2.2013.58%20-%2065

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