PENGARUH TINGGI MUKA AIR SALURAN DRAINASE, PUPUK, DAN AMELIORAN TERHADAP EMISI CO 2 PADA PERKEBUNAN KELAPA SAWIT DI LAHAN GAMBUT

AI DARIAH, JUBAEDAH JUBAEDAH, WAHYUNTO WAHYUNTO, JOKO PITONO

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Drainase yang berlebihan dan penggunaan pupuk yang intensif
diduga menjadi penyebab tingginya emisi gas rumah kaca (GRK) pada
perkebunan kelapa sawit di lahan gambut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk
mempelajari pengaruh tinggi muka air (TMA) saluran drainase, pupuk,
serta amelioran terhadap emisi CO 2  dari perkebunan kelapa sawit di lahan
gambut. Penelitian dilakukan dari bulan Januari 2010 sampai dengan
Desember 2011, pada perkebunan sawit di lahan gambut, di Kecamatan
Siak Kecil, Kabupaten Bengkalis, Riau, menggunakan rancangan petak
terpisah, tiga ulangan. Petak utama adalah TMA saluran drainase (40, 60,
dan 80 cm). Anak petak adalah pupuk dan amelioran: (1) dolomit 3
kg/pohon/tahun; (2) Pugam 10 kg/pohon/tahun; (3) Pupuk dosis
rekomendasi (2,5 kg urea+2,75 kg SP-36+2,25 kg KCl+dolomit 2
kg)/pohon/tahun; (4) Pupuk 75% dosis rekomendasi pukan 20
kg/pohon/tahun; (5) Pupuk 75% dosis rekomendasi Pugam 2,5 kg/pohon.
Parameter yang diamati adalah fluks CO 2 . Hasil penelitian menunjukkan
bahwa pada TMA drainase 80 cm, perlakuan dolomit menghasilkan fluks
CO 2 nyata paling tinggi (142,1 t/ha/tahun) dan terendah (44,5 t/ha/tahun)
dicapai perlakuan pugam. Fluks CO 2 yang tinggi (130,6 t/ha/tahun) juga
dicapai perlakuan pupuk dosis rekomendasi, khususnya pada TMA 40 cm.
Pada musim kemarau TMA drainase berpengaruh nyata terhadap fluks
CO 2 , terendah dicapai TMA 40 cm. Oleh karena itu, untuk meminimalkan
emisi gas CO 2 , maka TMA drainase perlu dipertahankan sedangkal
mungkin (sekitar 40 cm) selama tidak menurunkan produksi kelapa sawit.
Amelioran dengan bahan aktif kation polyvalen berpotensi dapat menekan
emisi GRK dari lahan gambut yang dikelola secara intensif.
Kata kunci: amelioran, emisi, drainase, gambut, kelapa sawit, pupuk

ABSTRACT
Excessive drainage and intensive use of fertilizers thought to be
the cause of high greenhouse gas emissions in peatland under oil palm
plantations. The study aimed at measuring the influence of water level
drainage (WLD), fertilizer, and ameliorant on CO 2 emissions from oil
palm plantations on peatland. The study was conducted from January
2010 to December 2011, at oil palm plantation on peatland, located in Siak
Kecil District, Bengkalis Regency, Riau, using split plot design, with three
replications. The main plot were WLD (40, 60, and 80 cm), as sub plots
were fertilizer and amelioran: (1) dolomite 3 kg/tree/year; (2) peat
fertilizer 10 kg/tree/year; (3) dose of fertilizer recommendations (2,5 kg
urea+2,75 kg SP-36+2,25 kg KCl+dolomite 2 kg)/tree/year; (4) 75% dose
of fertilizer recommendations + manure 20 kg/tree/year; (5) 75% dose of
fertilizer recommendations + peat fertilizer 2.5 kg/tree/year. Parameter
observed was CO 2 flux. The result showed that at WLD 80 cm, dolomite
treatment resulted the highest (142,1 t/ha/year) and the lowest CO 2  flux
(44,5 t/ha/year) resulted by peat fertilizer. The highest CO 2 flux also
reached by fertilizer recommendations treatment, particularly on WLD 40
cm. In dry season WLD significantly effect on CO 2 flux. The lowest
reached by WLD 40 cm. Based on that the WLD needs to be maintained
in a state of shallow (approximately 40 cm), without lowering production.
The use of fertilizer containing ameliorant with the polyvalen cation as
active material, potentially suppress the rate of greenhouse gas emissions
from peatlands are managed intensively.
Key words: ameliorant, emission, drainage, peatland, oil palm, , fertilizer


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v19n2.2013.66%20-%2071

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