PENAMBAHAN KLORIDA DAN BAHAN ORGANIK PADA BEBERAPA JENIS TANAH UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT KELAPA SAWIT

A. KASNO, DEDI SOLEH EFFENDI

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis) berkembang pesat di Indonesia
dan  penggunaan  pupuk  meningkat.  Pada  awalnya  pupuk  KCl
memperhitungkan hara K, namun diketahui hara Cl juga merupakan hara
mikro esensial. Penelitian bertujuan mempelajari penambahan Cl dan
bahan organik terhadap pertumbuhan dan kadar Cl dalam tanaman dan
akar kelapa sawit. Penelitian dilakukan di rumah kaca Balai Penelitian
Tanah, Bogor, tahun 2011. Contoh tanah diambil dari Cinangneng, Bogor
(Inceptisols), Cigudeg, Bogor (Oxisols), Kentrong, Lebak (Ultisols), dan
Sumatera Selatan (Gambut). Bibit kelapa sawit varietas Avros umur tiga
bulan ditanam dalam polibag dan dipanen setelah berumur 8 bulan.
Percobaan menggunakan rancangan petak terpisah, dengan petak utama
empat jenis tanah, dan empat anak petak, yaitu (1) Kontrol (-Cl), (2) KCl,
(3) NPK, dan (4) KCl + bahan organik. Setiap perlakuan diulang 4 kali.
Parameter yang diamati tinggi tanaman, diameter batang, bobot kering
tanaman dan akar, analisis Cl dalam tanah, daun, dan akar. Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan bahwa pemberian Cl menurunkan pertumbuhan bibit kelapa
sawit pada Oxisols, namun meningkatkan pada Inceptisols, Ultisols, dan
Gambut. Pemberian bahan jenis organik nyata meningkatkan pertumbuhan
kelapa sawit pada ke empat tanah. Pemberian hara Cl tidak meningkatkan
bobot kering tanaman kelapa sawit pada Inceptisols, Oxisols, dan Gambut,
namun meningkatkan bobot kering tanaman pada Ultisols. Pemberian hara
Cl meningkatkan bobot kering akar tanaman kelapa sawit pada ke empat
jenis tanah, namun meningkatkan kadar Cl dalam akar kelapa sawit,
sedangkan pemberian hara Cl tidak meningkatkan kadar Cl dalam daun,
kecuali pada Oxisols. Pemberian bahan organik menurunkan kadar Cl
dalam daun pada Ultisols dan tanah Gambut.
Kata kunci: bahan organik, Elaeis guineensis, jenis tanah, klorida,
pertumbuhan

ABSTRACT
Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was growing rapidly in Indonesia
and fertilizers use increased. Initially KCl were calculated as K nutrient,
but it is known that Cl is also an essential micronutrients. The research
aimed at studying the Cl and organic matter application on growth and Cl
content in plants and roots of oil palm. The study was conducted in the
greenhouse of Soil Research Institute, Bogor, in 2011. Soil samples were
taken from Cinangneng, Bogor (Inceptisols), Cigudeg, Bogor (Oxisols),
Kentrong, Lebak (Ultisols) and South Sumatra (Peat). AVROS varieties of
oil palm seedlings used 3 months being planted in polybags and harvested
after 8 months. The experiment design used was split plot design, with
four soil types as main plot, and four sub plots e.i. (1) Control (-Cl), (2)
KCl, (3) NPK, and (4) KCl + organic matter. Every treatment repeated
four times. Parameters observed are plant height, stem diameter, plant and
root dry weight and Cl analysis in soil, leaves, and roots. The result
showed that Cl application decreasing oil palm growth in Oxisols. Organic
matter application siqnificant increase of oil palm growth on the fourth
soil. The application of Cl nutrient did not increase the dry weight of plant
in Inceptisols, Oxisols, and Peat soil, but increased the dry weight of plants
on Ultisols. The application of Cl did not increase root dry weight in the
four soils, but increased Cl content in the roots in the four soil. While the
application of Cl did not increase of Cl content in leaves, except in
Oxisols. Organic matter application can reduce the content of Cl in the
leaves on the Ultisols and Peat soil.
Key words: organic matter, Elaeis guineensis, soil type, chloride, growth


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v19n2.2013.78%20-%2087

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