ANALISIS KERAGAMAN GENETIK Phytophthora capsici Leonian ASAL LADA (Piper nigrum L.) MENGGUNAKAN PENANDA MOLEKULER

CHAERANI CHAERANI, SRI KOERNIATI, DYAH MANOHARA

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Phytophthora capsici adalah penyebab penyakit busuk pangkal
batang yang paling merugikan pada lada di Indonesia dan sulit
dikendalikan karena dapat bertahan lama dalam tanah serta memiliki
keragaman agresivitas isolat luas. Pengetahuan mengenai keragaman
genetik strain-strain P. capsici dapat membantu perancangan strategi
efektif pengelolaan patogen. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi
keragaman dan struktur genetik isolat-isolat P. capsici asal lada
menggunakan penanda RAPD. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan
Oktober 2009 sampai April 2010 di Laboratorium Biokimia BB Biogen
dan Laboratorium Hama dan Penyakit Balittro. Keragaman genetik 59
isolat P. capsici yang berasal dari koleksi kultur tahun 1982-2009 dari 37
lokasi di Sumatera, Bangka, Jawa, dan Kalimantan, dikarakterisasi
menggunakan enam primer RAPD. Pengelompokan menggunakan
unweighted pair-group method with arithmatic averaging (UPGMA)
berdasarkan profil RAPD membagi ke-59 isolat ke dalam lima gerombol
utama; yang menunjukkan adanya keragaman genetik tinggi antar isolat.
Pengelompokan RAPD tidak berkaitan dengan asal lokasi isolat. Analysis
of molecular variance (AMOVA) juga menunjukkan adanya keragaman
genetik yang tinggi di antara isolat-isolat P. capsici, dengan ragam genetik
total sebesar 96% terletak di dalam masing-masing pulau (within
populations). Namun demikian, terdapat ragam genetik antar isolat dari
pulau berbeda (among populations) yang signifikan (4% ; P=0,001), yaitu
antar populasi di Sumatera dan Bangka dengan jarak genetik sebesar 0,081
(P=0,002). Ketidakterkaitan antara pengelompokan RAPD dengan asal
lokasi geografik isolat dan ragam genetik yang tinggi dalam satu pulau
dapat diakibatkan oleh terjadinya penyebaran isolat antar daerah, terutama
melalui bibit tanaman yang terinfestasi P. capsici. Pencegahan penyebaran
isolat antar pulau perlu dilakukan melalui sertifikasi bibit bebas penyakit
BPB dan pengembangan sistem perbenihan lokal.
Kata kunci: lada, penyakit busuk pangkal batang, Phytophthora capsici,
RAPD, keragaman genetik, struktur populasi

ABSTRACT
Phytophthora capsici is the causal agent of foot rot, the most
destructive disease of pepper in Indonesia and difficult to control .
Knowledge in the genetic structure of P. capsici strains can enrich
designing effective disease management strategies. This study was aimed
at analyzing the genetic variability and structure of P. capsici isolates from
pepper using RAPD. The study was done from October 2009 until April
2010 at the Biochemical Laboratory of Indonesian Center for Agriculutral
Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development, and the
Plant Pest and Disease Laboratory of the Indonesian Research Institute of
Spice and Medicinal Crops. Fifty-nine isolates collected from 1982 to
2009 from Sumatera, Bangka, Java, and Kalimantan were characterized
based on six RAPD markers. Unweighted pair-group method with
arithmatic averaging (UPGMA) clustering based on RAPD profiles
divided the isolates into five major cluster, which indicated high genetic
variability among isolates. No apparent relationship between RAPD
clustering and geographic origin of isolate was observed. Hierarchical
partitioning of genetic variation using analysis of molecular variance
(AMOVA) confirmed the overall high variability among isolates, with
96% of total genetic variance was resided among isolates within islands
(within populations). Nevertheless, a small (4%) but significant (P=0.001)
genetic variance among isolates between different islands (among
populations) were observed, which was detected between populations in
Sumatera and Bangka with genetic distance (Ф PT ) as high as 0,081
(P=0,002). The lack of association between RAPD clustering and
geographic origin as well as high genetic variance within populations may
have been the result of movement of isolates between locations, most
likely through infested plant cuttings. Use of certified and development of
blackpepper clones locally are required to prevent disease spread among
islands.
Keywords: black pepper, foot rot disease, Phytophthora capsici, genetic
diversity, RAPD, population structure


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v19n1.2013.23%20-%2032

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