KETAHANAN DELAPAN KULTIVAR TEMBAKAU LOKAL BONDOWOSO TERHADAP TIGA PATOGEN PENTING (Ralstonia solanacearum, Pectobacterium carotovorum, DAN Phytophthora nicotianae)

TITIEK YULIANTI, NURUL HIDAYAH, SRI YULAIKAH

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Tembakau bondowoso merupakan tembakau lokal rajangan yang
berkembang di Kabupaten Bondowoso, Jawa Timur. Saat ini ada delapan
kultivar dengan karakter produksi, mutu, dan ketahanannya terhadap
penyakit yang berbeda. Layu bakteri (Ralstonia solanacearum), busuk
batang berlubang (Pectobacterium carotovorum), dan lanas (Phytophthora
nicotianae) merupakan penyakit yang sering menyebabkan turunnya
produksi tembakau bondowoso. Evaluasi ketahanan delapan kultivar
tembakau bondowoso (Samporis, Serumpung, Marakot, Samporis Lokal,
Samporis AH, Samporis CH, Samporis B. Disbun, dan Deli) terhadap
ketiga patogen tersebut dilaksanakan di laboratorium dan rumah kasa Balai
Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat (Balittas) mulai bulan April sampai
dengan Oktober 2011. Penelitian terhadap ketiga patogen tersebut
dilakukan secara terpisah. Masing-masing kultivar ditanam sebanyak 10
tanaman, 1 tanaman/polibag. Setiap perlakuan (kultivar) diulang 3 kali dan
disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok (RAK). Inokulasi R.
solanacearum dan P. carotovorum dilakukan secara terpisah 24 jam
sebelum transplanting. Inokulasi P. nicotianae dilakukan dengan dua cara,
yaitu melalui akar dan pangkal batang. Inokulasi akar sama dengan cara
inokulasi bakteri. Inokulasi pangkal batang dilakukan pada tanaman
berumur 2 minggu setelah transplanting. Pengamatan intensitas penyakit
dilakukan setiap minggu selama 11 minggu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan
bahwa kultivar Samporis CH, Samporis, dan Deli tahan terhadap P.
carotovorum, R. solanacearum, dan P. nicotianae. Kultivar Samporis CH.,
Samporis, dan Deli ketahanannya lebih tinggi terhadap ketiga patogen,
dengan intensitas penyakit berkisar antara 3,3%-6,7%. Kultivar Marakot
sangat rentan terhadap ketiga patogen tersebut dengan tingkat keparahan ≥
50%. Demikian pula kultivar Samporis AH yang rentan terhadap R.
solanacearum, P. nicotianae dan P. carotovorum dengan intensitas
penyakit 23,3-53,3%. Oleh karena itu, kultivar Samporis CH, Samporis,
dan Deli cocok dikembangkan pada lahan endemik penyakit tular tanah di
Kabupaten Bondowoso.
Kata kunci: tembakau  bondowoso, Pectobacterium  carotovorum
Phytophthora  nicotianae, Ralstonia  solanacearum,
ketahanan

ABSTRACT
Bondowoso tobacco is a local type of sliced tobacco which is
restrictedly cultivated in Bondowoso Regency, East Java. There are eight
cultivars known, ie. Samporis, Serumpung, Marakot, Samporis Lokal,
Samporis AH, Samporis CH, Samporis B. Disbun, and Deli with their own
distinctive characters on their production, quality, and resistance to
diseases. Bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), hollow stalk rot
(Pectobacterium carotovorum), and blackshank (Phytophthora nicotianae
are the main cause of bondowoso tobacco production loss. Evaluation on
the resistance level of the cultivars to the three pathogens above has been
conducted at a laboratory and screen house scale in Indonesian Sweetener
and Fibre Crops Research Institute from April to October 2011. The
evaluation of each pathogen was conducted separately. Each evaluation of
the pathogen per cultivar used 10 plants planted individually in a polybag.
The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with 3
replicates. R. solanacearum and P. carotovorum were separately
inoculated on the test plants 24 h before transplanting. The inoculation of
P. nicotianae was done twice via the root and stem. Disease intensity was
observed weekly for 11 weeks. The results showed that Samporis CH,
Samporis, and Deli cultivars were resistant to P. carotovorum, R.
solanacearum and P. nicotianae, whereas Samporis and Deli cultivars
were more resistant to the pathogens (disease intensity ranged 3.3-6.7%).
Marakot cultivar was very susceptible to all of the three pathogens (disease
intensity ≥ 50%). Similarly, Samporis AH cultivar was also susceptible to
the pathogens with disease intensity ranged 23.3-53.3%. The study
indicated that Samporis CH, Samporis, and Deli cultivars are suitable to be
cultivated in the endemic soil born pathogen areas of Bondowoso
Regency.
Key words: bondowoso  tobacco, Pectobacterium  carotovorum,
Phytophthora  nicotianae, Ralstonia  solanacearum,
resistance


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v18n3.2012.89-94

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