ELIMINASI Potyvirus PENYEBAB PENYAKIT MOSAIK PADA TANAMAN NILAM DENGAN KULTUR MERISTEM APIKAL DAN PERLAKUAN AIR PANAS PADA SETEK BATANG

RITA NOVERIZA, GEDE SUASTIKA, SRI HENDRASTUTI HIDAYAT, UTOMO KARTOSUWONDO

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Minyak nilam merupakan salah satu bahan baku parfum multifungsi
yang bernilai tinggi. Budidaya dan pengembangan tanaman nilam
terkendala oleh serangan Potyvirus yang menyebabkan penyakit mosaik.
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan benih nilam bebas virus
dengan metode kultur meristem apikal dan perlakuan air panas pada setek
batang. Penelitian dilaksanakan mulai Januari sampai Desember 2010 di
Laboratorium Virologi Tumbuhan, Institut Pertanian Bogor dan Rumah
Kasa Hama dan Penyakit, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Obat dan Aromatik
(Balittro) di Bogor. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan adalah tiga varietas
nilam (Sidikalang, Lhokseumawe, Tapak Tuan). Penelitian terdiri atas (1)
Eliminasi Potyvirus pada tanaman nilam menggunakan kultur meristem
apikal dan (2) Eliminasi Potyvirus pada setek batang nilam dengan
perlakuan air panas. Percobaan pertama disusun menggunakan rancangan
acak lengkap dengan perlakuan 3 varietas nilam dan 2 tipe eksplan
(meristem apikal dan batang terminal), dan diulang 10 kali. Parameter
yang diamati adalah persentase pertumbuhan, waktu inisiasi, tinggi, dan
warna tunas, serta persentase tanaman yang terinfeksi Potyvirus.
Percobaan kedua menggunakan air panas pada tiga tingkatan suhu (50, 55,
dan 60 o C) dan tingkatan waktu perendaman (10, 20, dan 30 menit).
Percobaan disusun menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 10
perlakuan dan 10 ulangan. Tanaman nilam dipelihara selama 8 minggu dan
dilakukan pengamatan tinggi setek yang tumbuh dan daun yang bergejala
mosaik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tanaman nilam, yang
diperbanyak dari kultur meristem apikal ukuran 0,5-1 mm, menghasilkan
33,3-99,9% tanaman bebas virus. Perendaman setek batang nilam di dalam
air panas pada suhu 50-60 o C selama 10-30 menit tidak dapat
mengeliminasi Potyvirus yang menginfeksi ketiga varietas nilam yang
diuji. Setek batang nilam varietas Tapak Tuan dan Lhokseumawe lebih
toleran terhadap air panas dibandingkan Sidikalang tetapi daya tumbuhya
semakin menurun seiring semakin lama waktu perendaman. Teknik kultur
meristem apikal berpotensi untuk menghasilkan setek nilam yang bebas
virus.
Kata kunci : kultur meristem apikal, perlakuan air panas, Pogostemon
cablin, Potyvirus

ABSTRACT
Patchouli oil produced by patchouli plant is one of multifunctioning
perfume’s raw materials and has high economic value. One important
constraint during its cultivation is infection by Potyvirus causing serious
mosaic disease. This study was conducted to develop a technique to
produce virus-free cutting seeds using apical meristem culture and hot
water treatment on stem cutting. The study was carried out from January to
December 2010 in Plant Virology Laboratory of Bogor Agricultural
University and Pest and Diseases screen house of Indonesian Medicinal
and Aromatic Crops Research Institute (Balittro) in Bogor. Three varieties
of patchouli plant, i.e. Sidikalang, Lhokseumawe, and Tapak Tuan, were
used in this study. The study consisted of (1) Elimination Potyvirus in
cuttings of patchouli through apical meristem culture and (2) Elimination
Potyvirus in stem cuttings of patchouli with hot water treatment. The first
experiment was arranged using completely randomized design with
treatments of three patchouli varieties and two explant types (apical
meristem and stem terminal), and it was replicated 10 times. Parameters
observed were bud growth percentage, initiation time, height, and color,
and also percentage of plant infected by Potyvirus. The second experiment
applied hot water at three temperature levels (50, 55, and 60 o C) and
submersion periods (10, 20, and 30 minutes). It was arranged using
randomized complete design, consisting of 10 treatments with 10 plants
for each treatment. The patchouli plants were maintained for 8 weeks and
observations were made for height of growing cuttings and leaves with
mosaic symptoms. The results showed that the patchouli plants propagated
from apical meristem culture of 0.5-1 mm in sizes yielded 33.3-99.9%
virus-free plants. Submersion of patchouli stem cutting seeds in hot water
of 50-60 o C and soaking period of 10-30 minutes could not eliminated the
infecting Potyvirus on patchouli the three tested varieties. Cutting seeds of
Lhokseumawe and Tapak Tuan varieties were more tolerant to hot water
than Sidikalang one. However, their ability to grow decreased in line with
longer submersion time period. Apical meristem culture technique is
potential to produce virus-free cutting seeds of patchouli.
Key words: apical meristem culture, hot water treatment, Pogostemon
cablin, Potyvirus


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v18n3.2012.107%20-%20114

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