PENGARUH PUPUK K TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN, HASIL DAN MUTU RIMPANG JAHE MUDA (Zingiber officinale Rocs.)

MONO RAHARDJO

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Kalium merupakan unsur hara yang paling banyak diserap oleh
tanaman jahe dibandingkan N dan P. Produktivitas tanaman akan menurun
apabila kekurangan unsur hara K, karena K mempunyai fungsi penting
pada proses fotosintesis, aktifitas enzim, metabolisme karbohidrat, protein
dan sebagai transport ion. Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan
Sukamulya sejak Januari sampai Mei 2010. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah
untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian pupuk KCl terhadap pertumbuhan,
hasil, serapan hara, dan mutu rimpang jahe muda. Perlakuan disusun
dalam rancangan acak kelompok dan diulang 4 kali. Perlakuan yang
dicoba terdiri atas delapan perlakuan pupuk KCl yaitu; 0, 50, 100, 150,
200, 250, 300, dan 350 kg/ha. Jarak tanam yang digunakan adalah 50 x 60
cm, dengan populasi 100 tanaman/plot. Contoh tanaman diambil pada
umur 4 BST, sebanyak 5 tanaman setiap satuan perlakuan. Peubah yang
diamati adalah, tinggi tanaman, jumlah anakan, bobot segar rimpang,
bobot kering rimpang dan tanaman, kadar minyak atsiri, pati, serat, hara
N, P dan K. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tinggi tanaman, bobot
segar rimpang, bobot kering batang+daun dan bobot kering rimpang
meningkat secara nyata dengan meningkatnya perlakuan pupuk KCl.
Tinggi tanaman, bobot segar rimpang, bobot kering batang+daun tertinggi
dicapai pada perlakuan pupuk KCl dosis 350 kg/ha, masing-masing adalah
86,88 cm, 272,51 g/tanaman, dan 27,46 g/tanaman. Peningkatan bobot
kering batang+daun dan bobot segar rimpang berkorelasi positif dengan
meningkatnya pemupukan KCl sampai dosis 350 kg/ha, membentuk
persamaan linier (r = 0,610 tn dan 0,643 tn ) dengan tingkat kepercayaan
masing-masing P = 0,987** dan 0,99**. Kadar serat rimpang meningkat
membentuk persamaan kuadratik (R 2 = 0,792*) dengan peningkatan
pemupukan KCl sampai dosis 350 kg/ha, dengan tingkat kepercayaan P =
0,997**. Serapan hara N, P dan K berkorelasi positif dengan peningkatan
pemupukan KCl sampai dosis 350 kg/ha. Serapan N membentuk
persamaan linier (r = 0,541 tn ) dengan tingkat kepercayaan P = 0,977**,
serapan P membentuk persamaan kuadratik (R 2 = 0,798*) dengan tingkat
kepercayaan P = 0,992**, dan serapan K membentuk persamaan kuadratik
(R 2 = 0,643 tn ) dengan tingkat kepercayaan P = 0,947**.
Kata kunci : Zingiber officinale Rocs., pupuk KCl, pertumbuhan, mutu,
hasil jahe muda

ABSTRACT
Potassium is the nutrient most absorbed by ginger compared to N
and P nutrients. Crop productivity will decline if it lacks of K nutrient,
because K has an important function in the photosynthesis of process,
enzyme activity, metabolisms of carbohydrates and proteins, and it also
functions as an ion transport. A study, conducted at Sukamulya
Experimental Station from January to May 2010, aimed at determining the
effect of KCl fertilizer application on growth, yield, nutrient uptake, and
quality of young ginger rhizomes. Treatments were arranged in a
randomized block design with four replicates. The treatments consisted of
eight KCl fertilizer dosages, namely: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and
350 kg/ha. Planting space used was 50 x 60 cm, with plants population of
100/plot. Five plants per treatment unit were sampled at the age of 4
months after planting. Variables observed were plant height, number of
tillers, rhizome fresh weight, dry weights of rhizomes and plants, contents
of essential oil, starch, fiber, and N, P, and K nutrients. The results showed
that plant height, rhizome fresh weight, stems + leaf dry weight, and
rhizome dry weight increased significantly in line with the increase in KCl
fertilizer dosages. The best results of plant height, rhizome fresh weight,
and dry weight of stem + leaf were achieved at the highest dosage of KCl
fertilizer (350 kg/ha). The measures were 86.88 cm, 272.51 g/plant, and
27.46 g/plant, respectively. Increase in dry weights of stem + leaf and
fresh rhizome were positively correlated with increasing fertilizer dosages
of KCl up to 350 kg/ha, forming a linear equation (r = 0.610 tn and r =
0.643 tn ) with P confidence levels of 0.987** and 0.99**, respectively.
Increase in fiber content of rhizomes formed a quadratic equation (R 2 =
0.792*) by increasing dosages of KCl fertilizer up to 350 kg/ha, with a P
confidence level of 0.997**. Uptakes of N, P, and K nutrients were
positively correlated with increases in KCl fertilizations up to 350 kg/ha.
Uptakes of N nutrient formed a linear equation (r = 0.541 tn ) with a P
confidence level of 0.977**, P uptakes formed a quadratic equation (R 2 =
0.798*) with a P confidence level of 0.992**, and uptakes of K also
formed a quadratic equation (R 2 = 0.643 tn ) with a P confidence level of
0.947**.
Key words: Zingiber officinale Rocs., KCl fertilizer, growth, quality,
young ginger rizhome

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v18n1.2012.10%20-%2016

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