ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI CENDAWAN TERBAWA BENIH KAKAO HIBRIDA

BAHARUDIN BAHARUDIN, AGUS PURWANTARA, SATRIYAS ILYAS, MOHAMAD RAHMAD SUHARTANTO

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Benih merupakan komponen dasar dalam menentukan produktivitas
tanaman kakao. Benih yang sehat dapat merupakan faktor penting dalam
menentukan keberhasilan produktivitas kakao. Benih kakao mempunyai
kadar air cukup tinggi sehingga berpotensi terinfeksi cendawan, yang
dapat menurunkan mutu benih dan produksi kakao. Penelitian bertujuan
untuk mengisolasi dan mengidentifikasi beberapa cendawan terbawa benih
pada kakao hibrida. Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Induk Benih Pusat
Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia, Jember, Laboratorium Mikro-
biologi, Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Perkebunan Indonesia, dan
Laboratorium Pengendalian Hayati IPB Bogor pada bulan Juni sampai
Oktober 2008. Penelitian menggunakan benih kakao hibrida dari hasil
persilangan buatan antar TSH 858 dengan Sca 6, dan percobaan disusun
dengan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 3 ulangan. Benih ditumbuhkan
pada 3 media, yaitu water agar (WA), potato dextrose agar (PDA), dan
kertas saring (KS). Tingkat infeksi pada benih diamati setiap hari dan
dianalisis dengan analisis sidik ragam dan dilanjutkan dengan uji selang
berganda Duncan. Cendawan diisolasi, dibiakkan, dimurnikan, dan
diidentifikasi dengan menggunakan buku kunci identifikasi. Tingkat
infeksi cendawan terbawa benih kakao hibrida tertinggi terdapat pada hari
keempat (35,00%) dan kelima (51,67%) pada media PDA. Sebanyak 13
spesies cendawan terbawa benih kakao hibrida berhasil diidentifikasi
dengan menggunakan media WA dan PDA, serta 8 spesies cendawan
dengan media KS. Ke-13 cendawan terbawa benih yang ditemukan sangat
berpotensi menurunkan mutu fisiologis benih dan produktivitas kakao.
Cendawan tersebut perlu diuji lebih lanjut karena masing-masing memiliki
sifat-sifat patogenik, saprofitik, atau antagonistis terhadap cendawan lain
pada benih kakao. Cendawan terbawa benih kakao hibrida paling dominan
adalah Aspergillus spp., Penicillium chrysogenium, Coletotrichum
acutatum, Curvularia geniculata, dan Fusarium spp. Cendawan-cendawan
yang diduga berbahaya adalah Aspergillus spp., Coletotrichum acutatum,
Curvularia  geniculata,  Fusarium  spp.,  Phoma  glomerata,  dan
Macrophoma sp., dan yang diduga bersifat patogenik adalah Aspergillus
flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Cladosporium herbanum, Curvularia
geniculata, Fusarium oxysporum, Phoma glomerata, dan Macrophoma sp.

Kata kunci : Theobroma cacao, benih hibrida, infeksi cendawan, media
tanam

Isolation and Identification of Fungi on Hybrid Cacao Seeds

ABSTRACT
Seed is the basic component influencing the productivity of cacao
plantation. Healthy seed is the most important factor in determining the
success of cacao productivity. Moisture content of cacao seeds is quite
high potentially to cause fungi infection, which can further reduce seed
quality and cacao production. The research aimed at isolating and
identifying several seedborne fungi on hybrid cacao. The study was
conducted at main nursery of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research
Institute Jember, Laboratory of Microbiology, Indonesian Biotechnology
Research Institute for Estate Crops, and the Laboratory for Biological
Control of IPB Bogor from June to October 2008. Research used hybrid
cacao seeds derived from crossing between TSH 858 x SCA 6, and the
experiment was arranged using completely randomized design with three
replicates. Cacao seeds were grown on three media, i.e. water agar (WA),
potato dextrose agar (PDA), and filter paper (KS). Infection rates on the
seedlings were observed every day and analyzed using ANOVA followed
by Duncan's multiple regression test (DMRT). Fungi were isolated,
cultured, purified, and identified using the identification keys. The highest
rate of seedborn fungal infection occured on fourth (35.00%) and fifth
(51.67%) days on PDA media. A total of 13 species of seedborn fungi on
hybrid cocoa were identified by using WA and PDA media, as well as 8
other species by using KS. The 13 seedborne fungi potentially reduce seed
physiological quality and cacao productivity. These fungi need to be
further tested because each has its own pathogenic, saprophytic, or
antagonistic properties towards other fungi on cacao seeds. Predominant
seedborn fungi on hybrid cacao were Aspergillus spp., Penicillium
chrysogenium, Coletotrichum acutatum, Curvularia geniculata, and
Fusarium spp. The fungi suspected harmful were Aspergillus spp.,
Coletotrichum acutatum, Curvularia geniculata, Fusarium spp., Phoma
glomerata, and Macrophoma sp., and those suspected pathogenic were
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Cladosporium herbanum,
Curvularia geniculata, Fusarium oxysporum, Phoma glomerata, and
Macrophoma sp.
Key words : Theobroma cacao, fungi infection, hybrid seed, growing
media


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v18n1.2012.40%20-%2046

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