KEEFEKTIFAN BAKTERI ENDOFIT UNTUK MENGENDALIKAN NEMATODA Pratylenchus brachyurus PADA TANAMAN NILAM

RITA HARNI, SUPRAMANA SUPRAMANA, MEITY S. SINAGA, GIYANTO GIYANTO, SUPRIADI SUPRIADI

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Penggunaan bakteri endofit sebagai agen pengendalian nematodaparasit seperti Meloidogyne incognita pada kapas dan tomat, Globoderasp. pada kentang dan Radopholus similis pada pisang telah banyak ditelitipada beberapa jenis tanaman. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menganalisiskeefektifan  beberapa  bakteri  endofit terhadap  perkembangan  P.brachyurus, penetrasi, reproduksi, dan kerusakan yang diakibatkannyapada tanaman nilam. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium dan Rumahkaca Hama dan Penyakit Balai Penelitian Tanaman Obat dan AromatikBogor, dari bulan Maret sampai Agustus 2008. Penelitian menggunakanrancangan acak lengkap (RAL) 6 perlakuan dengan 7 ulangan. Lima isolatbakteri endofit, yaitu Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2, Alcaligenesfaecalis NJ16, Pseudomonas putida EH11, Bacillus cereus MSK, danBacillus subtilis NJ57, diaplikasikan pada setek tanaman nilam denganmetode perendaman akar. Seminggu setelah tanam, nilam diinokulasidengan 500 ekor P. brachyurus. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap penetrasi,reproduksi, populasi nematoda, dan pertumbuhan nilam. Hasil penelitianmenunjukkan bahwa bakteri endofit A. xylosoxidans TT2, A. faecalisNJ16, P. putida EH11, B. cereus MSK, dan B. subtilis NJ57 dapatmenekan penetrasi dan populasi P. brachyurus ke dalam akar sebesar54,8-70,6% dengan faktor reproduksi (pf/pi) 0,61-0,94 dan meningkatkanpertumbuhan tanaman nilam sebesar 37,86-84,71%.

Kata kunci: Pogostemon cablin, bakteri endofit, keefektifan, nematoda,Pratylenchus brachyurus, pengendalian biologi

ABSTRACT

Effectiveness  of  endophytic  bacteria  to  controlPratylenchus brachyurus nematode on patchouli

The use of endophytic bacteria as biocontrol agents for nematodes,such as Meloidogyne incognita on cotton and tomatoes, Globodera sp. onpotatoes and Radopholus similis on bananas has been widely studied inseveral crops. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness ofsome endophytic bacteria to control P. brachyurus, penetration,reproduction, and plant fresh weight production. Five isolates, namely A.xylosoxidans TT2, A. faecalis NJ16, P. putida EH11, B. cereus MSK, andB. subtilis NJ57 were applied to the patchouli cutting roots by soakingmethod before planting. A week after planting, the plants were inoculatedwith 500 juveniles and adults of P. brachyurus. Observations were doneon penetration and reproduction rates of the nematode, and growth ofpatchouli plant. Under greenhouse condition, A. xylosoxidans TT2, A.faecalis NJ16, P. putida EH11, B. cereus MSK, and B. subtilis NJ57reduced penetration rate of P. brachyurus into the patchouli roots by 54.8to 70.6% and suppressed nematode population with pf/pi value 0.61 to0.94. Growth of inoculated plants increased by 37.86 to 84.71% comparedwith uninoculated (control) ones.

Key words: Pogostemon cablin, endophytic bacteria, effectivenessnematode, Pratylenchus brachyurus, biological control


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v17n1.2011.6%20-%2010

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