KEMAMPUAN PEMULIHAN AKSESI KAPAS SEBAGAI RESPON TERHADAP KERUSAKAN OLEH KOMPLEKS HAMA PENGGEREK BUAH SECARA SIMULASI

IGAA. INDRAYANI, SUJAK SUJAK, DECIYANTO SOETOPO

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Sebagai tanaman indeterminit, kapas (Gossypium hirsutum) mem-perlihatkan pola pertumbuhan yang memungkinkan bertahan darikehilangan sejumlah komponen produksi tanpa kehilangan hasil secaranyata. Dengan kata lain tanaman kapas mampu melakukan pemulihan(recovery) dan kompensasi setelah kerusakan akibat serangan hama.Penelitian tentang kemampuan pemulihan aksesi kapas sebagai responterhadap kerusakan oleh kompleks hama penggerek buah secara simulasiini dilakukan di KP Karangploso, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Tembakaudan Serat, Malang, mulai Januari hingga Desember 2009. Tujuannyaadalah untuk mengetahui kapasitas pemulihan aksesi kapas setelahserangan hama dan kemampuan melakukan kompensasi. Sepuluh aksesikapas, yaitu: (1) L57x1124-81-411, (2) M35-5-2, (3) 40727-2xNL-11-1-73-1, (4) HG10x1209-619-9-76, (5) NC-177-16-C2, (6) 731Nx1656-12-76-2, (7) Stoneville 825, (8) 619-998xLGS-10-77-3-1, (9) NMG 1222, dan(10) NMG-5-2 diuji dalam penelitian ini dengan menggunakan rancanganacak kelompok (RAK) dengan tiga kali ulangan. Setiap aksesi kapasditanam dalam kantong-kantong plastik berukuran 10 kg dengan duatanaman per kantong. Satu tanaman diperlakukan dengan cara meng-hilangkan seluruh kuncup bunga yang ada setelah tumbuh 9-13 daun padabatang utama yang dilakukan selama 21 hari dengan interval 3 hari.Sedangkan satu tanaman lainnya dibiarkan tumbuh normal (kontrol).Parameter yang diamati adalah: luas daun, bobot kering tanaman, indekspemulihan, jumlah node, tinggi tanaman, luas daun, jumlah kuncup bunga,hasil kapas, dan persentase kompensasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkanbahwa tanaman kapas tahan, moderat, dan rentan serangan hama mampumelakukan pemulihan (recovery) dari kerusakan. Berdasarkan luas daun(R L ) dan bobot kering (R B ), setiap aksesi mempunyai indeks pemulihanyang berbeda-beda dan diantaranya ada yang berbeda nyata. Beberapaaksesi dengan kapasitas pemulihan tinggi memiliki tinggi tanaman, jumlahkuncup bunga, dan hasil kapas lebih tinggi dibanding tanaman kontrol.Dampak dari pemulihan juga terlihat pada perbedaan persentasekompensasi. NMG-5-2, Stoneville 825, 731Nx1656-12-76-2, 619-998xLGS-10-77-3-1, 40727-2xNL-11-1-73-1, dan NMG 1222 merupakanaksesi yang dapat melakukan kompensasi melalui penambahan hasil kapas>15% dibanding kontrol, yaitu berturut-turut sebesar 36,6; 34,5; 31,3;26,6; 20,4; dan 19,2%.

Kata kunci: Aksesi, indeks pemulihan, kompleks hama, simulasi

ABSTRACT

Recovery ability of cotton accessions as response tosimulated damage by bollworms

As an indeterminate crop cotton has demonstrated its ability torecover from pest damage over the growing season without significantyield loss. However, it was unclear to what extent can cotton toleratedamage before and after the onset of fruiting. This field study was carriedout at Karangploso Experimental Station of Indonesian Tobacco and FiberCrops Research Institute (ITOFCRI) Malang from January to December2009. The aim was to know the capacity of cotton accessions to recoverafter damage. Ten cotton accesssions as treatment were planted in polybagand were arranged in randomized block design with three replicate. Tenaccessions of cotton used as treatment were: (1) L57x1124-81-411, (2)M35-5-2, (3) 40727-2xNL-11-1-73-1, (4) HG10x1209-619-9-76, (5) NC-177-16-C2, (6) 731Nx1656-12-76-2, (7) Stoneville 825, (8) 619-998xLGS-10-77-3-1, (9) NMG 1222, and (10) NMG-5-2. Each accessionwas plantation in four polybags with two plants in each polybag. One plantin each polybag was damaged manually by removing all squares (100%)for 21 days at a three-day interval, while another plant was as anundamaged control. Parameters observed in this study were leaf area, dryweight of plant, indices of recovery ( R ), number of main-stem nodes, theaverage of plant height, number of square, and yield of cotton. Resultshowed that all accessions showed their ability to recover after damagedand the recovery indices based on leaf area (R L  ) and dry weight (R w )varied among the accessions tested. Accessions with high recovery abilityperformed better plant height, square formation, and cotton yield than thatof undamaged control. Effect of good recovery was resulting in higherpercentage of plant compensation. NMG-5-2, Stoneville 825, 731Nx1656-12-76-2, 619-998xLGS-10-77-3-1, 40727-2xNL-11-1-73-1, and NMG-1222 were accessions with average compensation percentage was greaterthan 15% : 36.6; 34.5; 31.3; 26.6; 20.4; and 19.2%, respectively whencompared with undamaged control.

Key words: Accession, indices of recovery, insect complex, simulation


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v16n3.2010.106-111

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