PENGARUH UMUR EKSPLAN TERHADAP KEBERHASILAN PEMBENTUKAN KALUS EMBRIOGENIK PADA KULTUR MERISTEM JAHE (Zingiber officinale Rosc)

MEYNARTI SARI DEWI IBRAHIM, OTIH ROSTIANA, NURUL KHUMAIDA

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Kendala dalam pengembangan jahe di Indonesia adalah terbatasnyabenih bermutu. Secara konvensional, budidaya jahe dilakukan denganmenggunakan bibit dari potongan rimpang. Dengan cara ini diperlukanbibit dalam jumlah yang banyak, antara 2-3 t/ha untuk jahe yang dipanentua dan 5-6 t/ha untuk yang dipanen muda. Kendala lain adalah penyakittular benih layu bakteri yang disebabkan oleh Ralstonia solanacearum.Salah satu upaya yang dapat dilakukan untuk mendapatkan benih jahebebas penyakit adalah perbanyakan melalui kultur jaringan. Penelitianbertujuan untuk mengkaji sumber eksplan dari tingkat umur panenrimpang yang berbeda terhadap kapasitas pembentukan kalus embriogenikpada kultur meristem jahe putih besar. Penelitian dilakukan di BalaiPenelitian Tanaman Obat dan Aromatik dari September 2007 sampaiMaret 2008, menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 20 kaliulangan. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan adalah meristem jahe putih besaryang diambil dari rimpang panen muda dan tua. Peubah yang diamatimeliputi: histologi jaringan, persentase kalus embriogenik yang terbentuk,bobot segar kalus, diameter kalus, dan morfologi kalus. Hasil penelitianmenunjukkan adanya daerah meristematik pada sayatan eksplan meristemjahe putih besar ukuran ± 0,25 cm. Persentase kalus embriogenik (92,1%)dan diameter kalus (0,59 mm) dari rimpang yang dipanen tua lebih tinggidari yang dipanen muda. Berat kalus (1,18 g) dan jumlah embrio somatikglobular (29,34) asal eksplan panen tua nyata lebih tinggi dari yangdipanen muda. Kalus embriogenik yang berasal dari eksplan rimpang yangdipanen tua mampu berkembang membentuk embrio somatik danberkecambah menghasilkan planlet normal.

Kata kunci : Zingiber officinale Rosc., umur rimpang, kalus embriogenik,embriogenesis somatik

ABSTRACT

Effect of explants age on the success of embryogenic calliformation in meristem culture of ginger (Zingiberofficinale Rosc.)

Constraint in ginger cultivation in Indonesia is the limited qualityof planting materials. In conventional cultivation, planting materials weretaken from a piece of rhizomes. By this technique, significant amount ofplanting materials is required, between 2-3 tons/ha for fully harvested and5-6 tons/ha for young harvested rhizomes. Another serious constraint isbacterial wilt disease infection caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Effortfor obtaining free disease planting materials could be performed throughtissue culture mass propagation. In this study, different ages of rhizome asexplants sources was evaluated for their capacity in embryogenic calliformation on the meristem culture of ginger. The experiment wasconducted in Indonesian Medicinal and Aromatic Crops Research Institutefrom September 2007 to March 2008, using a completely random designwith 20 replicates. Plant material used was white ginger meristem takenfrom the fully and young harvested rhizomes. The observed variables wereexplant histology, percentage embryogenic calli formation (%), freshweight of calli, calli diameter, number of globular embryo, and callimorphology. The results showed a meristematic region at the incisionexplant big-white ginger meristem ± 0.25 cm in size. Percentage ofembryogenic calli formation from the fully harvested rhizome-explant(92.1%) and calli diameter (0.59 mm) were higher than that of the youngerone. Calli weight (1.18 g) and number of globular somatic embryos(29.34) from fully harvested rhizome-explants were significantly higherthan that of the younger one. Embriogenic calli derived from the oldharvested rhizome explants was able to grow well to form somaticembryos and then germinate to produce normal plantlet.

Key words : Zingiber officinale Rosc, age of rhizome, embriogeniccalli, somatic embryogenesis


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v16n1.2010.37%20-%2042

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